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From that terrifying moment when in August 1945 American bombers dropped two atomic bombs, almost completely destroyed the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, many states have decided to create their own nuclear weapons development programs. Under the pretext of mutual containment, launched an unstoppable arms race, reaching the highest degree of incandescence in the mid-1980s. Military scientists and engineers created atomic bombs many times greater the power of those that claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of people at bombarded in the 45th.
After miraculously avoiding the global nuclear crisis between America and the Soviet Union, treaties were signed, designed to promote disarmament and control this dangerous type of weapon of mass destruction. These international acts led to a gradual reduction in nuclear stock, however, and today a number of states have a reserve capable of lead to the deaths of billions of people and potential global cooling called “nuclear winter”. According to rough estimates, world stock of nuclear weapons reaches almost 15 thousand warheads. Recently, due to aggravation of relations between the USA and Russia, as well as the United States and North Korea reduce nuclear weapons almost stopped.
Below are countries that are representatives of called the “nuclear club.”
Rating of the largest nuclear powers in the world
|Nomination||a place||Country||Number of Warheads|
|Rating of the largest nuclear powers in the world||1||Israel||–|
|2||North Korea||50 units|
|7||Great Britain||200 UNITS|
|10||Other countries – interesting facts||–|
Officially, Israel has never affirmed or denied the presence of nuclear weapons in the country. However, according to international experts, and given the hints of the former Prime Minister, this is not in doubt and the country has about four hundred warheads. Technologically advanced the state created its first reactor back in 1950, and later 10 years, the first atomic bomb was supposedly developed. Tests (again under assumptions) were held in 1979. Israel a test ban agreement was subsequently signed, however the country did not participate in the non-proliferation treaty. It is believed that the state has the means to deliver nuclear warheads with aviation, navy and on intercontinental ballistic missiles. Some sources even claim creating atomic mini-bombs that can fit in a suitcase and ongoing research in the field of neutron weapons.
Democratic People’s Republic of Korea is known for aggressive foreign policy, neglect of the majority international rules and regulations, but above all – permanent threats of the use of nuclear weapons in relation to the United States. At present the state’s arsenal is probably from 35 to 50 military units. Neither the exact amount of weapons, nor information on ongoing projects and research are not published. For the first time, representatives of North Korea announced the development of nuclear weapons in 2005, since then six tests have been conducted, recorded by outsiders through analysis seismological and other data. In 2017, the DPRK government �reported successful tests of a thermonuclear bomb.
Despite the underdeveloped national economy and many domestic problems, Pakistan continues to develop its nuclear program. It was first created back in 1956, but then suspended by order of the president. Decision on the resumption of interrupted arms development was taken in as a response to Indian nuclear tests. The Prime Minister of Pakistan in a public statement assured that even if the country’s citizens have to starve, the nuclear program will implemented. Tests of two types of bombs were conducted in 1998. On the the territory of the state are two reactors capable of produce a maximum of 12 kg of weapons-grade plutonium per year. Now Pakistan has 130 nuclear warheads at its disposal.
The constant and long-standing feud of India with Pakistan, repeatedly escalating into armed skirmishes, is one of the main motivating factors for which the country is actively increasing its nuclear potential. The second factor is the proximity of China, striving for leadership in the region. It is estimated that India has around 120 warheads, including on intercontinental missiles capable of to cover a distance of 5-6 thousand kilometers. First nuclear tests were conducted here in 1974 under a very cynical code The name is “Smiling Buddha.” The last test falls on 1998, it entailed sanctions by Japan and several Western states. In addition to missiles, India may launch warheads from airplanes, surface ships and nuclear submarines. Like Pakistan, a country developing a nuclear program beyond international non-proliferation act.
Nuclear Weapons Developed by Chinese Scientists since 1957, and in 1964 the first successful trials were conducted 20 kiloton charge. After just a few years, China embarked on creating and testing a hydrogen bomb. After 2009 PRC government announced plans to gradually build up its nuclear capacity. Along with this, the Ministry of Defense of the country published the so-called “White Paper”, which stated the first non-use of nuclear weapons and maintaining their quantity at the minimum required level. However, after a short time in the country has deployed four new types of intercontinental ballistic missiles, and today the state has about 280 warheads.
China is the only country in the world to provide a document in which an obligation is given under no circumstances do not use their nuclear weapons in relation to countries that do not have this technology.
The official position of France is to maintain nuclear Arsenal at the minimum necessary to guarantee safety level. For a long time, the government did not think about the development of this type of weapon. The impetus for change was defeat in the war with Indochina shortly after the end World War II. The example of the neighboring Great Britain. Work began on the creation of the atomic bomb, and in 1960 France conducted its first test. It caused discontent of the US government, which banned the French export of the CDC 6600 supercomputer used in the creation nuclear weapons. However, the supercomputer was still imported smuggling and developing the country’s military capabilities continued. A total of 210 tests were conducted. For today day the French nuclear arsenal has nearly three and a half hundreds of ammunition, for the delivery of which there are about a hundred aviation and marine carriers.
Since the time between the UK and the United States America’s Mutual Defense Treaty was signed in 1958, country began to develop nuclear weapons. Allies throughout long time closely cooperated in this matter, sharing secret data about scientific achievements and delivering each other the basic materials necessary for the production of bombs, such as weapons grade plutonium. The first in the history of Great Britain a charge test of approximately 25 kilotons was carried out in 1952, near Australia. Total armed forces The British conducted 45 tests. Due to limited territory and high population of the native island, all of them occurred in the Pacific Ocean or in Australia. IN the country currently has more than two hundred warheads, carriers for which are located on submarines ballistic missiles.
The United States was the first in the world to develop nuclear weapons. It is also the only country that has applied it to destruction of living targets during the bombing of Japanese cities Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The world’s first test of its atomic bomb called Trinity, the United States held in 1945, shortly before combat use. Since then american scientists and engineers have created more than a hundred different types and modifications of nuclear charges. Between 1945 and 1992, a total of difficulty over 1000 tests. The peak of arms buildup came for the 60s, when the total power of warheads reached 20 thousand megatons. In the future, this volume was significantly reduced.
Now the basis of the country’s nuclear potential is the fleet submarines with intercontinental ballistic missiles. In addition, there are such tools deliveries like land and mine ballistic missiles basing, aerial missiles and atomic bombs on strategic bombers. In total, the United States has 6,800 nuclear units. weapons, of which 1800 are in direct combat readiness.
The first nuclear test in Russian history took place in 1949 year. During the Cold War era, the Soviet Union strove for continuous increase the arsenal of warheads, their power and range launch vehicles. It was the Soviet military that blew up the most the largest nuclear bomb in human history. Originally it was planned to test a charge of 100 thousand kilotons, but counting the probability of a huge amount of radioactive fallout, experts made a reasonable decision to reduce power to 57 thousand kilotons
Now the Russian Federation, which after the collapse of the USSR �got all the weapons of a huge state, has approximately 7 thousand units of nuclear weapons. Almost fifteen hundred of they are on alert and placed on different types of media: intercontinental ballistic missiles, strategic bombers, nuclear submarine missiles. The main core of weapons are ground-based mobile systems “Topol-M” and R-36M2 heavy ballistic missiles, worn in NATO countries the name “Satan”.
Other countries – interesting facts
For a long time it was believed that a stockpile of nuclear weapons Iran, and this caused a number of sanctions from the West. However the government denied such allegations, but real evidence to the contrary was never found.
From 1960 to 1980, the number of nuclear states included Republic of South Africa. Subsequently, the authorities accepted the decision to abandon nuclear weapons and all six warheads were disposed of.
A fairly large part of Soviet nuclear weapons was located in Kazakhstan, Ukraine and Belarus. But after the signing of the Lisbon Treaty between the United States and the Union countries Independent States these three states abandoned him in Exchange for international security guarantees.
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