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The religion of ancient Egypt is amazing in itself. Despite that, like many other prehistoric belief systems, she polytheistic and based on animalistic representations, pantheon is not too wide and includes a limited number deities. Yes, and special “spirits” in ancient Egyptian religious concepts almost never occurs.
Perhaps that is why architects in ancient Egypt did not “sprayed” on numerous small altars, and erected immediately incredibly monumental and impressive temples. Part of them preserved to this day. They’re not afraid of anything – neither winds, nor sandstorms, no showers, not even time itself.
The most amazing and amazing temples of Ancient Egypt we collected in this material.
Amazing Temples of Ancient Egypt
|Nomination||a place||Name of product||rating|
|Amazing Temples of Ancient Egypt||1||Edfu Temple||5.0|
|4||Khonsu Temple at Thebes||4.7|
|7||Temple complex on the island of Fila||4.4|
|8||The Memorial Temple of Queen Hatshepsut||4.3|
|9||Abu Simbel Temple||4.2|
One of the central deities of the ancient Egyptian pantheon was Horus. (Chorus), symbolizing the sun and sky. He introduced himself in the guise of falcon – or a person with a bird’s head. In the mythology of Horus opposed to Set – the god of rage, war and destruction. Besides Moreover, he ruled the kingdom of the living and personified justice. Nothing won’t hide from Wadget – Horus’s eyes.
In honor of Horus, the Edfu Temple was erected – one of the largest on territory of modern Egypt. And at the same time – one of the “youngest”. Judging by measurements and research, the Edfu Temple began to be erected in 230s BC.
Edfu is a trapezoidal building. Outside on the walls myths depicting the life and history of God are depicted. Inside is wide courtyard surrounded by 32 columns. And in its very center is a statue of a falcon – a bird in the form of which Gore himself often appeared. The height of the walls is 36 meters.
Edfu’s décor also features images that describe life. Pharaohs. And this is not surprising. The political system of ancient Egypt was inseparable from the religious, and the pharaohs introduced themselves incarnations of deities on earth. Therefore the stories of their life and achievements were also included in the general mythological picture of the world.
Karnak Temple – the largest religious building, which existed from the time of Ancient Egypt to the present day – was erected in honor of three deities at once: Amon, Mut and Khonsu.
In ancient beliefs, Amon was the god of “heavenly black space, as well as air. And after religious reforms, he took place of Horus and turned into the patron saint of the Sun. According to mythology, he was married to Mut, the goddess of motherhood. Khonsu, the third member Theban triad, was the son of these two representatives of the pantheon. is he He was the god of the moon, as well as a healer and therefore a patron healers.
Karnaks temple was a place of worship for all three of these gods. His began to build about 3.2 thousand years BC. It has several separate sanctuaries. For example, dedicated to the god Amon-ra own temple with an area of 30 hectares and consisting of 10 pylons (tower-shaped structures in the shape of a truncated pyramid or trapezoid). There is a hall of caryatids, and several alleys at once sphinxes of different “breeds”, and even a sacred lake.
Of course, the pharaohs who took part in the construction This temple complex, too, did not differ in particular modesty. A huge statue is dedicated to Ramses II in one of the courtyards. And the walls of the Khonsu Sanctuary are decorated with frescoes that depict Ramses III. But the most distinguished Amenhotep II – he has a whole a separate temple, which is even larger than that dedicated to the demiurge god and the patron saint of artisans Ptah.
Karnak Temple Complex is a World Heritage Site UNESCO, and was one of the first objects included in this the list is its serial number 87.
From III to II millennium BC, the political center (and periodically – also the capital) of ancient Egypt was the city of Thebes, located in the eastern part of the country, approximately in the middle, on both banks of the Nile River. The inhabitants of this almost metropolis worshiped the three main deities of the local pantheon – Amon-Ra, Mut and Khonsu. In honor of them, the largest temples were erected, the largest of which – Karnak, previous in the ranking.
But the Luxor Temple was a little smaller and dedicated to only one to the deity – Amon-Ra. He got his name from the geographical location. Now this temple complex is located in the modern city of Luxor.
Luxor Temple has long been called the “southern harem” – in First of all, due to the incorrect translation of the local name. In addition, researchers were pushed to such a name. bas-reliefs on the walls of the sanctuary, depicting the birth of a deity Amon-Ra. From an architectural point of view, the Luxor complex characteristic of the religious buildings of the times of the so-called New Kingdom – it is distinguished by grandeur, scale of design and many solemn details. For example, here a huge number of columns, sculptures, bas-reliefs and others decorative elements.
Luxor Sanctuary connects to Carnaxim Complex Alley sphinxes. In addition, thanks to this series of sculptures to architects managed to properly orient the pylons of the temple from the southeast to northwest. On the walls of some elements of the complex are not depicted only mythological plots, but also literary treasures, such as the “Pentaura Poem,” which modern historians call propaganda work designed to praise Pharaoh Ramses II.
By the way, interesting finds on the territory of this temple are found still. For example, in 2018, archaeologists were able to discover a sphinx statue in the form of a lion with a human head, which is very similar to the sculpture of the Cairo Great Sphinx.
Khonsu Temple at Thebes
Thebes Temple of Khonsu – one of the examples of “Ancient Egyptian long-term construction. “Dedicated to one of the three main gods of the kingdom, he It was built several centuries, which influenced its architecture. So, the main pylon looks much less luxurious than decorated bas-reliefs of the central gate.
This temple began to be built at the end of the 2nd millennium BC under the leadership of Pharaoh Ramses II. It was he who built the same the central pylon, which is the main element religious building. But he did not have time to finish his work – not enough which of the pharaohs was distinguished by longevity.
“The baton” took Pharaoh Nectaneb I. Since the construction of the temple several centuries passed at that time. Nectaneb I managed erect a hypostyle hall with numerous, often spaced columns. Unfortunately, time did not spare him, so now it the room looks a little sad.
Nektaneb I ruled 18 years and during this time managed to fight with Persians. The cause of death is unknown, but the mournful hour overtook him on the throne. The following pharaohs forgot about Khonsu Temple, and construction continued only Ptolemy III. It was he who built the luxurious entry gates that are now meeting tourists and surprise with complexity the pattern depicted on them. So, except for hieroglyphs showing mythological and historical plots, they are decorated with voluminous bas-relief with a winged sun and snakes.
Not all ancient Egyptian religious buildings belong to prehistoric period. In the time of “AD”, when the country was captured by the Roman Empire, temples were also erected on its territory. And one of the largest of them is Kalabsha.
Kalabsha Temple, located on the right bank of the Nile River, began erect in the 30s of our era under the guidance of Roman Emperor Octavian Augustus. True, he was not completed. Roman emperors also did not differ in longevity, sometimes becoming too suddenly mortal.
Interestingly, the Kalabsh temple was erected in honor of the Nubian deity – Mandulis, symbolizing the sun. He is not too different from Amon-Ra from ancient Egyptian mythology and is also often depicted in in the form of a falcon. The only important “but” – Mandulis wears a complex Atef crown decorated with ram horns. But Amon-Ra are honors are not needed, he is already the god of the sun.
The temple of Kalabsh in terms of architecture is similar to the rest religious buildings of ancient Egypt, but at the same time a little more “refined”, which is characteristic of the influence of the ancient Roman empire. is he also performed in the form of a truncated pyramid, but the outer walls – not solid, but made up of columns.
By the way, now this building is not in the same place as and earlier. He had to be moved carefully in the middle of the past centuries when the Nile began to block the Aswan Dam with hydroelectric power station.
At the end of the 1st millennium BC, Egypt came into power dynasties of the Ptolemaic pharaohs. Especially bloody in these times no wars were observed (they will be a little later), so the rulers concentrated on the religious aspect of being. They are not only finished Khonsu Temple in Thebes, but also began to build a new structure – even more ambitious, grandiose and impressive.
Kom Ombo Temple, located in the ancient Egyptian city of Nubit, was dedicated to two deities – Horus and Sebek.
Horus was the son of Ra, the god of the sun and sky, often personification male beginning. He was portrayed with the head of a falcon. Even his character in ancient Egyptian language was recorded as a sitting bird. Sebek He was the god of water. In addition, it was in his “merit” that they wrote down the spill of the Nile. Sebek was portrayed as a man with a crocodile head, but at the same time he was a good god – he protected both people and neighbors pantheon.
Kom Ombo, in fact, is a temple complex and consists of two shrines. Moreover, they were absolutely symmetrical and identical. to each other – well, except with the exception of bas-reliefs and other things decor. Kom Ombo has one entrance, but if you go left, to the statue falcon, you can get to the sanctuary of Horus. And if to the right, to to the crocodile, then to the Sebek hall.
Temple complex on the island of Fila
Fili (Filet) – an island in the southern part of the Nile, at the first threshold. By legends, Osiris, the ancient Egyptian god, is buried on it rebirth and the head of the kingdom of the dead. He judged the souls of the dead determining how pious they were in life. If a the dead man was a good man – they let him into the fields of Ialu; what if a sinner … In general, Osiris had a personal monster, Ammat, who (by the way, this is a “girl”) loved to eat unholy souls.
Phil was an impregnable island. There is nobody on it except the priests had the right to be. Even Pharaoh, even if he was the viceroy of God on the ground. Strict “access control”, according to legend, is not passed and the fauna. Even birds and fish, according to the ancient Egyptians, are not visited the island of Fila.
But all this did not prevent the construction of a huge temple on the island. complex. And construction began in relatively recent times. – at the beginning of the IV century BC. Then Pharaoh Nectaneb I, already with a hand in the Theban sanctuary, Khons, began to erect on the island is the temple of the goddess Hathor (patroness of heaven, love, dancing, intoxication, motherhood and fertility).
In “our era,” when Ancient Egypt was captured by the Romans, the construction of temples in Phil did not stop. Emperor Trajan erected the sanctuary of the goddess Isis, personifying femininity and motherhood.
At the end of the 20th century, the Aswan Dam was built on the Nile River, and the island turned out to be even more impregnable than before – he completely went under water. Fortunately, UNESCO managed to transfer the temples of Hellenic times to Agilkiyu. However, for example, polychromy of reliefs turned out to be irretrievably lost.
The Memorial Temple of Queen Hatshepsut
In the middle of the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egypt ruled Queen Hatshepsut. In about 20 years of power, she made for a lot of countries – restored the state after previous conflicts, started several new ones, rebuilt many cities, “raised” the economy and established several trade routes.
All this, as well as an effective mechanism of state propaganda, led to the fact that Hatshepsut is very fond of the people. Therefore, after her death – whether due to an incorrectly torn tooth, whether due to poisoning by poisonous cosmetics – ancient Egyptian architect Senmouth (according to unofficial information, is also a favorite and beloved of the queen) erected a memorial church in her honor.
Queen Hatshepsut Memorial Temple is located in the Deir Valley al-Bahri and cut down right in the rock. It consists of three terraces. In times of ancient Egypt this temple was a real architectural by a miracle. On the terraces cut down in the rocks, trees grew and gardens bloomed, and an artificial lake spilled out in front of the entrance. And for the construction This architectural masterpiece took only 9 years.
Now, of course, most of the building is destroyed. Even the hypostyle hall has lost its roof – and the columns are open. However a small portico remained at the entrance, and even the statues decorating it more or less intact. They depict Queen Hatshepsut with her head Osiris.
Abu Simbel Temple
On the west bank of the Nile is a mountainous area, a breed in which is both stable and pliable at the same time processing. That is why several religious and ceremonial buildings, the largest and impressive of which is the Abu Simbel temple complex.
The Abu Simbel complex began to build Pharaoh Ramses II, who “noted” in Luxor and Thebes. The first sanctuary in the composition structure is dedicated to the ruler himself. And it surprises the images. In the decor of the temple there is a bas-relief showing how Ramses Pharaoh worships Ramses the deity.
In addition, in this temple dedicated to Ramses II, two Ancient Egyptian gods – Aton (visible form of Ra, the solar disk) and Ptah (demiurge, patron of artisans and architects).
The second temple of the complex is dedicated to Nefertiti. She was not only Queen of Egypt, but also the first wife of Pharaoh Ramses II. In that the sanctuary was worshiped by both her and the goddess Hathor, the patroness of heaven, love, fertility, motherhood and even intoxication.
Attention! This rating is subjective, not advertising and does not serve as a guide to the purchase. Before the purchase consultation with a specialist is necessary.