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The word hurricane used to indicate strong tropical cyclone, came from the name of Huracan, the god of the winds in Mayan mythologies. Cyclone is an atmospheric vortex spiral-shaped, twisted counterclockwise or clockwise arrow, depending on where exactly it was formed, in northern or southern hemisphere. The central part of the cyclone is called “eye of the storm”, it contains a zone of low pressure, in which Calm and high temperature. Cyclone is different from conventional storm high wind speed: 120 to 350 kilometers in hour. The process of the appearance of hurricanes has not yet been fully studied and remains subject of research, it is only known that this atmospheric phenomenon due to a combination of several factors, such as the existence of zones of low atmospheric pressure near the equator, air condensation in warm areas over the ocean and uniform wind speed at different heights above sea level. The greatest hurricanes occur off the coast of the North American continent. Tropical cyclones in Asia are commonly referred to as typhoons.
Of all natural phenomena representing direct a threat to man and nature, a hurricane can be considered one of the most dangerous due to its difficult to predict behavior and huge destructive potential. In 1973, scientists created a scale, consisting of five categories to determine the degree of danger this natural disaster. Also for convenience, hurricanes are assigned names, most often female. This tradition came from weather forecasters, who studied the behavior of cyclones in the middle of the 20th century and called them the names of their wives, mother-in-law and other relatives. On average every year 5-8 strong cyclones occur on the planet, most of them do not pose a special danger. But from time to time occur really powerful hurricanes. We offer to learn about them more details.
The most powerful hurricanes in the world
|Nomination||a place||Name of product||Death toll|
|The most powerful hurricanes in the world||1||Hurricane Camilla||259|
|7||Hurricane San Calixto||27,500|
A cyclone was born in August 1969 near the African coast, by the middle of the month he reached the Cayman Islands, and the speed The wind at the epicenter was about 180 kilometers per hour. Hurricane swept along the west coast of Cuba without causing much harm. He soon reached the United States, and at his peak forces walked through Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. To the best of your ability elements over land, it began to weaken and eventually collapsed heavy rain in Virginia. Rainfall reached 790 mm per hour, causing catastrophic flooding, the worst in the whole history of the state. The hurricane was assigned the fifth category on a scale Saffir-simpson, and its true power still remains unknown, since after him there was not a single whole meteorological device. According to rough estimates, the maximum Camille’s wind speed exceeded 320 kilometers per hour. The elements claimed the lives of 143 people in three states, another 153 people nearly two thousand inhabitants died during the extensive flood were injured. Hurricane destroyed more than five and a half thousand houses, many roads were blocked by mudslides and fallen trees. The total damage amounted to 9.9 by modern standards billion dollars.
Intense tropical cyclone, defined as super typhoon, swept through the territory of China and Taiwan in August 1975. Hurricane wind speed reached 250 kilometers per hour. Powerful the elements caused tremendous damage, destroying the largest in the province Henan Banqiao Dam, built on the Zhuhe River and more than 60 others, smaller dams. 15.7 billion water leaks cubic meters of large-scale flooding began – a wave of about ten kilometers and a height of almost seven meters flooded neighborhood. The total number of victims of the disaster, according to various estimates, ranged from 170 to 230 thousand people, it includes as much as 26 thousand drowned, and those who died later from starvation caused by flooding of crops and the death of hundreds of thousands of livestock. Due to the destruction of transport infrastructure, approximately one million residents were cut off from food supplies, food for they had to be delivered by air. Hurricane Nina has become the most serious natural disaster in Chinese history, damage from it amounted to 1.2 billion dollars.
Hurricane Andrew originated in the Atlantic Ocean, not far from North American coast in 1992. Walking through the Bahamas islands, he reached a wind speed of 240 kilometers per hour. On the the island nation killed four people. Due to violation heat transfer in the upper layers as you move to the US shores, the hurricane began to subside. But once over land, he again gained strength, which surprised meteorologists because such behavior atypical for tropical cyclones. Thanks timely the prevention and evacuation of the population of numerous victims succeeded avoid, but still the elements claimed 26 lives and another 39 people subsequently died from injuries. Rushing through the states Florida and Louisiana, the fifth category hurricane demolished over 80 thousand structures, leaving 355 thousand people without housing, uprooted huge amount of trees and destroyed power lines on vast territory. US authorities estimate the damage at 26.5 billion dollars, but third-party analysts said the numbers were underestimated and real losses from the elements amounted to 34 billion dollars. For clearing roads and helping victims involve 16 thousand American soldiers. Accurate hurricane speed Andrew could not be measured, as he disabled everything measuring instruments, but according to rough estimates its speed ranged from 230 to 320 kilometers per hour.
Mitch is one of the most devastating hurricanes of the past centuries. A tropical storm formed over the southern Caribbean in October 1998 and moved towards Central America, gradually gaining strength. By the time he reached the coast, the wind power in it reached three hundred kilometers per hour. The most powerful the hit went to Honduras and Nicaragua, where the cyclone raged for a few days. After that, he passed over with less force. Salvador and Guatemala, bringing heavy rains. United The states were most fortunate, as the hurricane had already lost to Florida all its destructive power. Natural disaster led to death more than 20 thousand people, about 2.7 million were left without a roof over your head. Besides its direct impact, a hurricane gave rise to tsunamis with waves up to six meters high, which carried all coastal structures and led to extensive flooding. IN Honduras destroyed up to 80% of the transport infrastructure, 70% of the crops died. Long term effects of natural cataclysm became hunger, lack of medicines and fast spread of infectious diseases. Nicaragua suffered almost the same as Honduras and in El Salvador and Guatemala urgent evacuation of tens of thousands of residents was needed. Besides, these two countries lost a significant portion of exported crops such as coffee and sugarcane. Losses from Hurricane Mitch were estimated at a billion dollars, which is a large sum for poor Central states America.
For all the time of scientific meteorological observations, Irma became the longest of all powerful hurricanes. He raged with constant wind speed of about 300 kilometers per hour over more than a day and a half. Tropical cyclone arose in August 2017 years off the African coast and in just a few days moved into the most dangerous hurricane of the fifth category. Crashing into The Caribbean, he caused catastrophic destruction. Suffered many islands, for example, on Saint Martin were destroyed Princess Juliana Airport and 90 percent of the buildings are damaged, half of the local population was left without housing. Off the coast of Cuba the hurricane made waves seven meters high, and the capital of the country, Havana, flooded by flood. The last victim of Irma was the western part US state of Florida, from where it was urgent evacuate more than six million people. Significant damage caused floods caused by torrential rains in the city of Miami and its surroundings. The action of the elements killed more than 130 people, and financial damage amounted to about 77 billion dollars.
The most destructive and deadliest natural disaster of those that have ever overtaken Mexico are rightfully considered a hurricane Pauline 1977. It was formed in the open ocean, approximately in four hundred kilometers from the city of Santa Maria Huatulco and moved along the mexican coast. Peak hurricane wind speed exceeded 215 kilometers per hour. The hurricane brought torrential rains triggered large-scale floods and powerful landslides. IN about five hundred people died as a result of the elements approximately 300 thousand Mexicans were left without housing. Applied hurricane Pauline harm amounted to seven and a half billion dollars Estimated in 1977.
Hurricane San Calixto
The tropical cyclone of San Calixto in 1780 is one of the deadliest hurricanes in modern history. By historical data, it was formed near the Cape Verde islands and from there began his advance towards the Caribbean archipelago. When he brought down his tremendous power on the islands, the speed of the wind the hurricane was estimated at 350 kilometers per hour. The powerful element demolished literally everything in its path, destroying buildings, tearing out trees with roots and turning over located in sea ships. French fleet lost 40 ships taking participation in the war for US independence, the island of Grenada sank 19 Dutch ships, and near St. Lucia, a hurricane smashed the fleet British squadron commanded by Admiral George Rodney. One from the ships, the wind lifted into the air and threw it on the city building hospitals, causing great damage to the latter. According to evidence eyewitnesses, the hurricane was so powerful that it tore the bark from the trees. In addition, the cyclone lifted tidal waves up to eight meters high, that hit most of the Caribbean islands and destroyed the few who survived the hurricane at home. When the storm subsided in Haiti, Barbados and many other places left only 10 to 5 percent of buildings. The total number of victims of the hurricane San Calixto exceeded 27 thousand people.
Hurricane Wilma occurred in 2005. He became one of the most intense tropical cyclones that were assigned the fifth hazard category. Moving from the Atlantic Ocean to Gulf of Mexico, and then to the southeast coast of the United States, the hurricane caused significant damage in Cuba, the Yucatan Peninsula and in state of florida. According to meteorologists, the maximum speed cyclone winds amounted to 295 kilometers per hour. Hurricane repeatedly changed the route, then going to land, then returning back to the ocean. Timely reaction by authorities and subsequent evacuation measures helped to minimize casualties among the population. Nevertheless, from a natural cataclysm killed about a hundred people. Damage in economically exceeded $ 29 billion.
Cyclone Bhol formed in the Bay of Bengal, and began to move North towards East Pakistan. In November 1970, a hurricane reached the Pakistani coast, and began to move inland, in a few hours sweeping entire settlements and tens of kilometers agricultural land. Ship anchored in port recorded a gust of wind of 220 kilometers per hour. However, the hurricane itself did much less harm than what it caused stormy tide in the Ganges delta, at which the height of the waves reached ten meters. The element passed throughout the Eastern Pakistan, and affected the Indian state of West Bengal. It led to a complete loss of rice crops in a vast territory, damage to several large sea ships, the flooding of two airports and the destruction of nine thousand fishing vessels. From about 85 percent of all structures along the path of the hurricane remained some ruins. According to various estimates, the disaster claimed the lives of 300 up to 500 thousand people, and the total number of victims exceeded 3.6 million people. Damage to the economy and residents of countries estimated at 540 million dollars.
When it comes to the most catastrophic natural disasters, any American will immediately remember Hurricane Katrina. Sadly the famous tropical cyclone of 2005 originated near the Bahamas islands. Rapidly gaining strength, the fifth category hurricane moved into direction of Florida, its wind speed was 280 kilometers per hour. The first blow hit southern Florida, leaving millions of inhabitants without electricity, and some without roofs houses. After that, a hurricane passed through the Gulf of Mexico, damaging more than a hundred oil platforms, and moved on land with great force. In potentially hazardous areas of the states of Mississippi, Alabama and Louisiana authorities announced an emergency evacuation. However when raging elements went straight to the densely populated New Orleans, transport infrastructure could not cope a multimillion-dollar stream of leaving residents. Approximately 20 percent population were forced to stay in the city, hiding in their houses, or specially equipped shelters. Once in the area New Orleans, Hurricane Katrina led to a breakthrough of dams, and 80 percent of the city’s area was under water. To save survivors involved boats, helicopters and significant human resources – 43 thousand soldiers from the National Guard. Dealing with the consequences tropical cyclone included not only restoration infrastructure but also crime containment because looting has become widespread. Total number of victims elements exceeded 1800 people, another 700 thousand were left homeless. In addition, off the coast of Louisiana spilled 34 million liters oil, putting the state on the verge of an environmental disaster. Economic losses due to Hurricane Catherine are estimated at 125 billion dollars.
Attention! This rating is subjective, not advertising and does not serve as a guide to the purchase. Before the purchase consultation with a specialist is necessary.