10 modern tablets and drugs for the treatment of kidney

Review of the best according to the editorial board. On the selection criteria. This material is subjective and does not constitute advertising and does not serve as a purchase guide. Before buying, you need to consult with a specialist.

Many people without medical education believe that every organ in a person is treated only with their own, special drugs. This is correct, because no one will give a laxative to a patient with edema, and diuretics for constipation. But it’s not that simple. Here are some examples. The inflammatory process is universal. It is a condition in which redness, soreness, a feeling of heat, swelling, and dysfunction occurs.

All of these symptoms and signs can be well identified when acute, infectious arthritis occurs with joint involvement. Exactly the same pathological process associated with inflammation can occur in any organ. Inflammation of the meninges – meningitis, of the brain – encephalitis, inflammation of the stomach – gastritis, and so on.

And there is a large group of anti-inflammatory drugs for their treatment, which will almost always be indicated. In some cases, when an infection or viruses are to blame, it is also necessary to use antibacterial and antiviral agents, influencing the cause of the disease.

In addition to universal pathological processes, 'problems' can be looked at from a different angle. For each organ, many diseases can be found that will be treated in the same way and with the same medicines as in other places. But there are specific diseases for each organ, which are treated with specific drugs. Today we will talk about kidney diseases, and about what special drugs exist that are most often used for the pathology of this organ, which filters blood and forms urine.

From an anatomical and functional point of view, the kidneys, urinary tract and genitals are combined into the genitourinary system. The kidneys are the organ that filters, purifies the blood, forms urine, and the urinary system is the ureters, bladder and urethra, their function is to accumulate and remove the generated urine outside.

In this drug review, we will consider only those drugs that are used to treat the kidneys and organs of the urinary system, and diseases of the genital organs, and specific drugs that are used in this case, for example, hormonal drugs, will be considered in other reviews. All these funds are well known to urologists and nephrologists, that is, surgeons and therapists who treat patients with various kidney diseases.

Of course, in one small article it is impossible to describe not only all drugs, but even all their groups. therefore, it was decided to consider a group of uro-antiseptics, which eliminate inflammation and, with proper treatment, cleanse urine of bacteria and make it sterile. The second group of drugs is a remedy for the treatment of nephrolithiasis, or urolithiasis. Despite the fact that a person may also have gallstone disease, the mechanism of formation of stones in the kidneys and gallbladder is different, the stones are also different, and they need to be dissolved with the help of different drugs.

This material is informative, overview in nature. The drugs indicated in it are chosen arbitrarily, but still the emphasis is on the most effective and popular drugs that can be easily purchased at pharmacies of all forms of ownership. For each drug, an INN is given, that is, an international non-proprietary name. If there is an original drug, first released on the market, then first the name of the original drug is indicated in brackets, and then some generics, or commercial copies.

Then the price range for the most expensive and high-quality original drug is indicated, and the price for the cheapest drug that can be bought at the pharmacy. As a rule, the cheapest drug does not have its own commercial name, and is called INN-generic (generic). An example can be given. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam is the INN name. There can be many meloxicams, they are produced by various companies. It can be the drug Mirlox, it can be Melocan, Amelotex, Artrosan, Genitron, and it can be Movalis. At the same time, Movalis was first released to the market, and then other companies began to copy this funds when the manufacturer lifted the patent for the restriction.

The original drug, which is being launched on the market for the first time, has the largest number of different studies, the most money and time spent on it, and it is more expensive. But the cheapest drugs will not have their own name, and you can find Meloxicam Avexima, Meloxicam Akrikhin, and other drugs, the name of the manufacturer is added to the INN name of which.

Overview of tablets and drugs for the treatment of kidney

Nomination a place Name of product price
Uroseptics 1 Nitroxoline (5-NOK) RUB 160
2 Furazidin (Furamag) 439 r
3 Nitrofurantoin (Furadonin) 157 r
4 Pipemidic acid (Palin) 172 r
5 Nifuratel (Macmiror) 898 RUB
Drugs for the treatment of ICD (nephrourolithiasis) 1 Blemaren (citric acid + potassium bicarbonate + sodium citrate) RUB 1,054
2 Allopurinol RUB 119
3 Rovatinex 1 259 rub.
4 Urolesan 392 RUB
5 Phytolysin 384 r

Uroseptics

Let's start our review of drugs for the treatment of kidney with very popular drugs from the uroseptic group. Uroseptics, or uroantiseptics, are drugs that are taken in pills, and their greatest concentration gradually accumulates in the urine. This is a very important property. To deliver drugs to any other organ, it is enough that they are absorbed in an active form from the intestine, do not change in the liver, enter the bloodstream, and create an effective concentration there. Having passed through any organ, for example, through the spleen, the medicine will do its job, since the blood capillaries will deliver it to every cell of the spleen.

But the kidneys are a special organ. They let the blood through only up to a certain point, and then filter it, and urine appears from the blood. Many drugs that can get into the blood do not pass into the urine, or create insufficient concentrations there. And therefore it is impossible to treat diseases such as pyelonephritis, cystitis, pyelitis, urethritis with them. But uroantiseptics do an excellent job with this task. Another important feature is that they do not have a systemic effect, that is, when they enter the urine, they destroy microbes, but they do not affect other organs.

Uroseptics are used not only in acute processes, but also in chronic inflammatory lesions of the kidneys. They can be taken for many months, but necessarily as prescribed by a doctor, and gradually eliminate the microbial inflammatory process along with antibiotics. What uroantiseptics are used in our time?

Nitroxoline (5-NOK)

Popularity rating: 4.9

Nitroxoline (5-NOK)

Nitroxoline aka 5-NOC, an orange pill for kidney treatment, patients say. Nitroxoline belongs to synthetic antibacterial drugs, and has not only antimicrobial, but also antifungal effect, therefore it is indicated for the treatment of urinary infections in conditions of reduced immunity.

The drug, despite the fact that it has been used for a long time, affects most of the microbes that cause urinary tract infections, both gram-positive and gram-negative flora. Escherichia coli, ureaplasma and mycoplasma, causative agents of candidiasis are highly sensitive to nitroxoline. Protein and staphylococcus are not very sensitive to this drug, and if the infection of the urinary tract is caused by Klebsiella, anaerobic flora or enterobacter, then this remedy should not be used.

Thus, it is necessary to prescribe uroantiseptics only after identifying the corresponding pathogen and determining its sensitivity to one or another antibiotic. This agent is indicated for the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, and it does not matter if it is a kidney or bladder pathology, it is important that the cultures of microorganisms isolated from the patient are sensitive to Nitroxoline. If the patient has impaired renal function and symptoms of renal failure, then the drug may accumulate in the body, and the accumulation effect may appear, therefore, care must be taken. Oral administration of 5-NOC should be in an average dose of 400 mg per day (2 tablets of 50 mg each) four times a day. This is not very convenient, the reception is too frequent. With renal failure, the dose must be halved. 5-NOC is produced by Lek from Slovenia, and a pack of 50 tablets, which will last about a week, will cost from 160 to 300 rubles.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantage of nitroxoline will be the high sensitivity of the most common causative agents of urinary infections to it, as well as antifungal activity. The drug can be prescribed while driving a car and in hazardous work, it does not affect the ability to operate machinery. It is extremely rare that an allergy such as a skin rash develops to it – no more than one case in a thousand people. Perhaps the most inconvenient moment is the frequent intake of a large number of tablets, 8 tablets a day. In some cases, the dosage may not be 400 mg per day, but 800, that is, it is necessary to take 16 nitroxoline tablets daily.This is very inconvenient.

Furazidin (Furamag)

Popularity rating: 4.8

FURAZIDINE (FURAMAG)

Furasidine, or Furamag, is a popular drug that urologists love and prescribe it for a long time, including in children, in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux, as well as reflux from the ureters to the renal pelvis. It is in brownish-yellow capsules, each containing 50 mg of furazidine. Unlike the previous medicine, it is most effective against the coccal flora, which has gram-positive characteristics – these are streptococci and staphylococci. Escherichia coli, salmonella, shigella, enterobacter and klebsiella are also sensitive to it.

Depending on the high and low concentration, it either stops the development of microorganisms, that is, it has a bacteriostatic effect, or destroys them, producing a bactericidal effect. The drug is prescribed for almost all urogenital acute and chronic infections, with gynecological infectious conditions, with infected burns of the skin and subcutaneous tissue.

It is very important that the drug can be used in a short course as a preventive measure before invasive urological diagnostic procedures. These are cystoscopy, catheterization, and other surgical procedures. Furamag is sold in 50 mg capsules, and adults need to take one capsule 3 times a day, or 2 capsules 3 times a day. The average duration of the course of treatment is up to 10 days. As a prophylaxis before surgical manipulations, the drug is prescribed one capsule 1 time half an hour before the intervention.

Furamag is produced by the Latvian company Onlinepharma, and one pack of 30 capsules, designed for 10 days, that is, just for the course of administration, will retail from 560 to 950 rubles.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantage of this drug is the slow development of microbial resistance to it, as well as the ability to use it for children over the age of three. The remedy, unlike the previous one, is still not taken so often, but it is advisable to drink it with a large amount of liquid. Side effects include occasional nausea, headache, and skin rash. You can not take this remedy in severe renal failure, during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and children under 3 years of age. It is very important that while taking Furamag and other nitrofurans, you do not need to take medications that acidify the urine. This reduces the activity of the drug. Acidify urine, for example, ascorbic acid and calcium chloride.

Nitrofurantoin (Furadonin)

Popularity rating: 4.7

Nitrofurantoin (Furadonin)

Furadonin is a fairly old and budget nitrofuran, and is also inexpensive. These are ordinary tablets without any shell, or yellow, or yellow-green. Unlike Furamag, it always acts bactericidal, that is, it destroys microbes, regardless of concentration. Its activity is high in the presence of gram-positive flora, streptococci and staphylococci, and gram-negative aerobes, shigella and Escherichia coli. It practically does not affect fungi, and is weak against enterococci. And if the patient is diagnosed with proteus, then furadonin should not be prescribed.

Currently, this weak remedy is used for mild and uncomplicated forms of infectious processes in the form of cystitis or urethritis, and only if they are caused by a microorganism sensitive to Furadonin. Just as in the case of Furamag, it is still prescribed before urological interventions, but still this remedy cannot be considered modern and powerful. Furadonin is also used orally often, 4 times a day, one or two tablets, that is, 50 or 100 mg. In the case of uncomplicated infection, the dosage should be 200 mg daily for a week. It is produced by the Latvian company Onlinepharm, and one pack of 20 tablets will cost no more than 217 rubles.

Advantages and disadvantages

Furadonin has a rather serious set of contraindications – these are children under 6 years of age, the possibility of developing hemolytic anemia in the fetus as a consequence of taking it in a pregnant woman, severe liver damage, chronic heart failure. Of the side effects, there is a risk of developing disorders of the peripheral nervous system, that is, polyneuropathy. Patients may experience numbness in the extremities, a creeping sensation, and then the drug should be canceled.

The drug can cause hepatitis, hemolysis, and if it is used for too long, fungal superinfection may occur, or insensitive or insensitive microorganisms will join. Doctors know that Furadonin cannot be used in the treatment of glomerulonephritis and prostatitis; for this, other drugs must be prescribed. To top it off, the medication may cause drowsiness and dizziness, and it is best not to drive a car or work in a hazardous workplace during treatment.

This medicine has many side effects: from the gastrointestinal tract, from the nervous and respiratory system, and from the hematopoiesis. There may even be joint pain and sudden onset of fever, cough, and chest pain. Therefore, in the event that doctors seek to prescribe Furadonin, then it is worth asking them what the reason for this particular choice is. There are also more modern medicines.

Pipemidic acid (Palin)

Popularity rating: 4.6

PYPEMIC ACID (PALIN)

Palin is a pretty good product with Swiss quality, which is produced in Slovenia by the Lek company. The medicine always has a bactericidal effect, and Palin is especially good if the patient has a gram-negative flora. These are intestinal pathogenic bacilli, enterobacter, proteus, gonococci, and from the positive flora – staphylococci. If the patient has an infection of the kidneys and urinary tract caused by anaerobic flora, then it is better not to prescribe this drug. It can also be used not only for acute and chronic recurrent infections, but for prophylaxis before surgery in urology.

The tablets are available in a dosage of 200 mg, and they are taken at intervals of 12 hours, that is, one tablet in the morning, and one in the evening, always before meals. If the patient has staphylococci isolated from the urine, then add a third tablet so that there is no break between them longer than 8 hours. The course of taking the drug is about 10 days, but the doctor finally determines the duration. During treatment, it is advisable to drink plenty of fluids to improve the passage of urine. In pharmacies, you can buy a package of Palin in the amount of 20 pieces for 10 days of admission, that is, the course will cost an average of 320 rubles. Domestic INN-generic, which is produced by Velpharm, that is, pipemidic acid, will cost 140 rubles. for the same packaging.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantage of the drug will be a democratic price, and a rather rare use. One tablet in the morning and one in the evening is already acceptable for a modern person. However, the drug must be taken long enough for prostatitis, up to 2 months. It is contraindicated in patients with epilepsy and convulsive syndrome, it is prohibited for pregnant and lactating women, the remedy is practically not used in pediatric practice. The minimum age for administering Palin is 14 years.

It has side effects – nausea and vomiting, mild itching. If it is prescribed in the summer and in a high dose of 3 tablets a day, then there may be photosensitivity, that is, the development of sunburn. If it is used for too long, then microorganisms will lose sensitivity to it. Particular care must be taken if this drug is prescribed to patients who have had either a stroke or a transient ischemic attack.

Nifuratel (Macmiror)

Popularity rating: 4.5

NIFURATEL (MACMIROR)

The last drug in this group is the Italian Macmiror, or nifuratel, which is currently considered one of the best uroseptics. In addition to urinary tract infections, and gynecological diseases, it is indicated in the complex treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection, for the treatment of giardiasis and amoebic dysentery. Its activity against Helicobacter pylori infection allows it to be included in eradication schemes, and such schemes are described in detail in the corresponding article. The drug is active against very many aerobic and anaerobic infectious agents, and against diseases caused by protozoa.

Macmiror is indicated for the treatment of acute intestinal infections such as dysentery, salmonellosis, is highly active against fungi, and especially against candidiasis. If the patient has a H. pylori infection and is resistant to metronidazole, then McMiror successfully replaces it in the eradication regimens, which are discussed in the article about the treatment of H. pylori infection. The medicine is used for urinary tract infections in rather high doses, on average 4-5 tablets per day for 1-2 weeks. The drug is produced in a package of 20 tablets, that is, one package for a patient with kidney and urinary tract infection will last for 4 days. One package of makmirora costs from 850 to 1300 rubles. It is produced in Italy, by Doppel Pharma.

Advantages and disadvantages

The biggest drawback of McMirora is its high price, as well as the need to take it in 'handfuls', but the frequency of admission is only twice a day, morning and evening. The drug has a very high efficiency, a wide spectrum of action, and the toxicity and the degree of development of side effects in case of overdose are very low. It is not used during pregnancy and lactation, but due to the fact that no relevant studies have been carried out. The only side effects were nausea, bitterness in the mouth, discomfort, itching and skin rashes. The drug has no such contraindications as other drugs from the uroseptics group, it can be used even for renal failure and chronic liver diseases, but very carefully, and under the control of tests. Therefore, in the event that a doctor recommends uroantiseptics, then one of the modern and best drugs is Macmiror, and in this sense it can be considered the complete opposite of the old and crude Furadonin.

Drugs for the treatment of ICD (nephrourolithiasis)

Nephrolithiasis, or urolithiasis, is almost always initially treated conservatively, that is, without surgery. An exception is a stone that is too large and traumatic for the mucous membrane, causing bleeding, a coral stone that cannot be dissolved, as well as infected calculi. In all other cases, special drugs are used that can induce drug litholysis, that is, the destruction of stones by a chemical method, changing the acidity of urine. Since the stones are different, in some cases it is necessary to acidify the urine, sometimes to use drugs that inhibit special enzymes of purine metabolism. And in some cases, you need to alkalize the urine. So, if a patient's stones consist of calcium phosphates and oxalates, then medicines containing magnesium, as well as Xidiphon, which slows down the release of calcium from bone tissue, help. Consider the most popular drugs for the treatment of urolithiasis.

Blemaren (citric acid + potassium bicarbonate + sodium citrate)

Popularity rating: 4.9

Blemaren (citric acid + potassium bicarbonate + sodium citrate)

Blemaren is a popular drug with a long history. It can be said to be a dry, effervescent lemonade in tablets as it contains sodium citrate, citric acid and potassium bicarbonate. All this is capable of alkalizing urine and dissolving urinary stones. Uric acid stones, mixed urate-oxalate stones, cystine stones are subject to dissolution. Blemaren can also prevent the formation of mixed calcium-oxalate stones, but for this the patient must make some effort.

For the treatment of urolithiasis, it is not enough just to take a pill and forget. It is necessary to monitor how much the acid-base state of urine has changed, and regularly measure it using indicator paper before taking medications. Blemaren is taken after dissolving the tablet in a glass of water, it can be fruit juice, tea, alkaline mineral water. Usually, the daily dose is from 2 to 6 tablets, and after the start of treatment, it is necessary to reach a certain pH of urine. Uric acid stones dissolve in the range of 7.0-7.2, the pH range should be slightly wider to dissolve stones of urate-oxalate origin, from 6.8 to 7.4. If there are cystine stones, which is much less common, the urine pH range should be 7.5-8.5, that is, more alkaline.

The treatment period is long, and not less than 4-6 months. In some cases, Blemaren is used to prevent stone formation, for example, during treatment with cytostatics. Blemaren is produced by the German company Esparma, and one pack of 80 effervescent tablets costs an average of 1250 rubles. With an average dosage, this amount will be enough, on average, for half a month, so the cost of a monthly course is about 2500 rubles.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantage of Blemaren is the ability to use it for various types of stones, creating one or another concentration of hydrogen ions (pH) in the urine. The disadvantage is the need for active participation of the patient in this process and the daily, threefold urine measurement. In order to achieve a confident Blemaren concentration without dips, that is, without sharp decreases, a special skill is required, therefore, the correct, confident use of the product can begin only after a few days, when the patient himself titrates the dose. On the other hand, Blemaren is a remedy that changes acid-base parameters, alkalizes the body. Therefore, it is contraindicated in renal failure, in alkalosis, and in other severe disorders of electrolyte balance and acid-base balance.

Allopurinol

Popularity rating: 4.8

ALLOPURINOL

Allopurinol is a drug used to reduce the concentration of uric acid in the blood plasma and is used for long-term treatment of hyperuricemia. However, in the event that the patient is diagnosed with urinary stones, which consist of urates, that is, from uric acid salts, then the drug is also indicated for the treatment of this type of urolithiasis. Since urate stones are quite rare, in about 5% of all stones, this is an infrequently prescribed drug. It should be used only once a day, and the average dosage is from 100 to 300 mg. If the daily dose exceeds 300 mg, then you need to break it down into several doses, for this, small dosage tablets (100 mg) are purchased. The average dose should be between 2 and 10 mg per kilogram of body weight per day. Allopurinol is produced either by the domestic manufacturer Organic, or by the Hungarian manufacturer Egis. In the latter case, the cost of one package of allopurinol of 30 300 mg tablets will not exceed 140 rubles.

Advantages and disadvantages

Strictly speaking, Allopurinol is not a direct drug for the treatment of urolithiasis, but it can be considered a prophylactic drug. Its task is to make sure that the concentration of urates, that is, uric acid salts in the blood plasma, is low. This will prevent new stones from forming, and can dissolve old stones to some extent. Still, the main way to prevent and treat urate stones is a lifelong diet.

Rovatinex

Popularity rating: 4.7

ROVATINEX

This agent can be considered a food additive with a pronounced litholytic effect. These are gelatin capsules that have a strong, specific smell. The preparation contains various plant compounds such as terpenes. The medicine increases urine output, reduces smooth muscle spasms, and helps dissolve stones, thanks to the content of plant terpenes. Soluble terpenes, entering the urine, dissolve stones, which are composed of calcium salts. But it is calcium stones that are mainly found in various forms of nephrolithiasis. If the patient has small stones, or sand, then the antispasmodic effect of Rovatinex makes it possible to slightly expand the ureters, improve renal blood flow, and facilitate the independent passage of stones. At the same time, the kidney does not swell, and the blood flow in it practically does not change. Additionally, this agent has an antimicrobial effect.

Rovatinex is indicated both for the treatment of urolithiasis and for prevention. You need to use the capsules before meals, one or two capsules three times a day, with renal colic, the dose is increased several times, up to a maximum of 15 capsules per day. Rovatinex is produced by an Irish company, RovaFarm, and a package of 50 capsules dissolving in the intestine will cost from 1000 to 2000 rubles. at the pharmacy.

Advantages and disadvantages

The disadvantage of this remedy is its successful activity only in the presence of calcium stones. If the patient has cystine, phosphate, or urate stones, this drug will not work for him. Also, the remedy is contraindicated while taking oral anticoagulants, for example, warfarin, for the prevention of cardioembolic strokes. Rovatinex should not be taken if renal colic occurs too often, if it is accompanied by a severe infection of the urinary tract.

Urolesan

Popularity rating: 4.6

UROLESAN

Urolesan is perhaps the only drug for the treatment of urolithiasis, which is also indicated for dissolving gallstones. However, it is sold in drops. Its place in the classification is a myotropic antispasmodic, that is, a drug that relaxes smooth muscles. It consists of castor, fir and mint oil, extracts of hops, oregano and carrots. As a result, these plant components increase the excretion of urine, acidify it, simultaneously enhance the formation of bile, and have disinfecting properties. In addition to urolithiasis and gallstone disease, Urolesan is indicated for pyelonephritis, cholecystitis and cholangiohepatitis.

It is prescribed before meals, you need to drip 10 drops on a sugar cube and dissolve it under the tongue. This should be done three times a day. The average duration of treatment is from 1 week to 1 month, and if the patient has renal and hepatic colic, then a single dose can be doubled. Urolesan is produced by the Ukrainian company Galichpharm, and there is a rather big difference between expensive and cheap packaging. A bottle containing 25 ml of drops at retail can cost from 260 to 520 rubles, that is, the price fluctuates widely.

Advantages and disadvantages

The advantage of Urolesan is that it acts mildly, practically has no side effects, except for slight dizziness, nausea, and even then with individual intolerance. But this remedy is not a remedy directly indicated for dissolving urinary stones. It acidifies the urine, and other professional drugs may be prescribed against it. While taking Urolesan, dynamic observation is carried out, preparation of the patient for remote lithotripsy, to facilitate the passage of stones (antispasmodic effect). There are practically no contraindications to taking the drug, except for individual intolerance and too large kidney stones, as well as gastric ulcer, gastritis with high acidity, and childhood.

Phytolysin

Popularity rating: 4.5

Phytolysin

Finally, Fitolysin, which is used in the complex therapy of urolithiasis, can be considered a widely used drug containing phytoextracts for nephrolithiasis. Phytolysin is a paste formulation that contains many herbal ingredients. These are goldenrod and horsetail, bird grass and wheatgrass, onion skins and birch leaves, parsley and lovage root, fenugreek seeds, and four vegetable oils: mint, sage, pine and orange. Such a sophisticated combination leads to relaxation of the smooth muscles of the ureters, stimulation of urine output, and assistance in dissolving small stones.

The best effect of Phytolysin is in those patients who have medium-sized stones and sand. It helps to wash out sand and small stones from the kidneys. Phytolysin reduces the potential crystallization capacity of urine. You need to use Fitolysin one teaspoon inside, three times a day, dissolving in half a glass of water. The average duration of treatment is 3-4 weeks. You can buy Phytolysin at a price of 350 to 620 rubles, for 100 g of paste. It is produced by the Polish company Herbopol-Polfa.

Advantages and disadvantages

This drug can also be used, as well as the previous one (Urolesan), in complex therapy, with exacerbations of inflammatory kidney lesions and urolithiasis. Then he needs a cover in the form of antiseptics, antibiotics, more serious drugs to dissolve stones. When the patient begins the stage of remission, and the exacerbation subsides, then one Phytolysin can be left to work with urinary sand. The drug is well tolerated, but it also has contraindications for use. In addition to individual intolerance, these are renal and heart failure, various types of glomerulonephritis, and urinary stones containing phosphate. It is contraindicated in children, pregnant and lactating women. The most common side effects are nausea and allergic skin reactions.

The popularity rating is based on the analysis of demand data from the wordstat.yandex.ru service.


Attention! This rating is subjective and does not constitute an advertisement and does not serve as a purchase guide. Before buying, you need to consult with a specialist.

Rate article
An online magazine about style, fashion, etiquette, lifestyle, and about choosing the best products and services.
Add a comment