Review of the best according to the editorial board. On the selection criteria. This material is subjective and does not constitute advertising and does not serve as a purchase guide. Before buying, you need to consult with a specialist.
In an effort to extract as much minerals as possible, mankind every year tries to penetrate deeper into the bowels of the earth. Conventional excavation no longer yields enough raw materials. You have to dive deeper and deeper, trying to extract oil, coal or metal ore. And sometimes the size of the wells is amazing.
In this article, we have collected 10 of the deepest wells in the world, whose length can cause a slight shock.
- Ranking of the deepest wells in the world
- 10th place: Saatli well (USSR-Azerbaijan, 8342 meters)
- 9th place: Zisterdorf UT2A (Zisterdorf, Austria, 8553 meters)
- 8th place: University (USA, 8686 meters)
- 7th place: KTB Oberpfalz (Germany, 9101 meters)
- 6th place: Baden Unit (Baden Unit, USA, Oklahoma, 9159 meters)
- 5th place: Bertha Rogers (Bertha Rogers, USA, Oklahoma, 9583 meters)
- 4th place: Kola superdeep well (USSR-Russia, Murmansk region, 12262 meters)
- 3rd place: Maersk Oil BD-04A (Qatar, 12,290 meters)
- 2nd place: OP-11 (Russia, Sakhalin, 12345 meters)
- 1st place: Chaivo Z-44 (Russia, about 13 km)
Ranking of the deepest wells in the world
|Ranking of the deepest wells in the world||10||Saatlinskaya well (USSR-Azerbaijan)||8342 METERS|
|9||Zisterdorf UT2A (Zisterdorf, Austria||8553 METERS|
|8||University (USA)||8686 METERS|
|7||Oberpfalz (Germany)||9101 METER _|
|6||Baden Unit (USA, Oklahoma)||9159 METERS|
|5||Bertha Rogers (USA, Oklahoma)||9583 METERS|
|4||Kola superdeep well (USSR-Russia, Murmansk region)||12262 METERS|
|3||Maersk Oil BD-04A (Qatar)||12290 METERS|
|2||OP-11 (Russia, Sakhalin)||12345 METERS|
|1||Chayvo Z-44 (Russia)||ABOUT 13 KM|
10th place: Saatli well (USSR-Azerbaijan, 8342 meters)
The Saatli superdeep well is located on the territory of Azerbaijan, not far from the city of Saatli, in the Kura lowland. It began to be drilled in 1977, and the purpose of the development was research and development. The USSR Ministry of Geology planned to use it to build a geophysical model of the earth's crust.
As a result, 5 years after the start of drilling, for technical reasons, the work was stopped at 8324 meters (15 km under the project). The Saatli Superdeep Borehole helped scientists identify several rather interesting features of rock formation. True, it was not possible to reach the basalt layer – that is, the area where the earth's crust ends and magma begins.
The Saatlinskaya well is also interesting because it is one of the first superdeep wells in the Soviet Union. It is now mothballed.
9th place: Zisterdorf UT2A (Zisterdorf, Austria, 8553 meters)
Oil fields are found not only in areas of seismic activity. One of the pools is located right in the center of Europe – under Germany and Austria. However, the deposits there are quite shallow and very deep, as a result of which drilling and drilling have to be drilled to extract the 'black gold'.
Therefore, several superdeep wells are located in Germany and Austria at once. One of them is Zistredorf UT2A located in the Zisterdorf field. Its depth is 8553 meters! And we drilled this well back in 1977.
Ironically, the Zisterdorf UT2A well is not working. Geologists hoped to find oil at ultra-deep depths, but it was not there. There is another well next to it, at 7544 meters, but also useless. During its drilling, specialists stumbled upon natural gas deposits, but they could not be extracted.
As a result, Zisterdorf UT2A, the deepest well in Austria and one of the largest in Europe, is now mothballed. No work is being done on it.
8th place: University (USA, 8686 meters)
Superdeep continental borehole 'University', located in Hillsborough County (Florida, USA), is interesting not only for its size. It was drilled back in the early 1970s in order to search for minerals – oil and natural gas. For their sake, I had to reach a depth of 8686 meters!
And, what is most interesting, life was discovered in the rocks raised from the bottom of this superdeep well. Even in the form of microorganisms, but nonetheless. It is worth noting that these protozoa have to survive in really extreme conditions – at a depth of 9 kilometers.
Therefore, the super-deep continental borehole 'University' delighted not only investors who invested in its drilling, but also scientists who discovered the existence of life in extreme conditions.
7th place: KTB Oberpfalz (Germany, 9101 meters)
The KTB Oberpfalz Continental Superdeep Well is one of the 'youngest' in the ranking. So, its development was carried out in the period from 1990 to 1994. It is interesting that it was drilled not for the sake of finding oil and gas, but for scientific research.
The maximum design depth was 12 kilometers. And if the investors' plans came true, KTB Oberpfalz would become the deepest well in the world! However, already at the mark of 9 kilometers, the drilling equipment began to fail – the temperature was too high, which the designers could not have foreseen.
Due to the temperature of 270 degrees and the huge pressure at around 7,500 meters, drilling has slowed down. In addition, the well shaft itself began to deviate to the side. As a result, the owners decided to stop working. The well depth was 9101 meters.
On the other hand, many scientifically useful materials were extracted during drilling. Now KTV Oberpfalz does not work, it is used for tourist excursions.
6th place: Baden Unit (Baden Unit, USA, Oklahoma, 9159 meters)
Beiden Unit is one of the deepest wells in the United States. Interestingly, it was drilled almost in the very center of the mainland of the country – in the state of Oklahoma, near the city of Anadarko. The purpose of the work was the search for minerals, as well as scientific research.
The company Lone Star Technologies Inc., which drilled this super-deep well, spent about one and a half years and more than $ 6 million on work – and by 1970 standards, this was a considerable amount. To achieve at least some minerals, it was necessary to spend 150 diamond bits and almost 2 thousand tons of cement.
As a result, it was possible to reach a depth of 9159 meters – it was at this mark that the oil-bearing layer lay. So this is the first well in the ranking currently in use. And thanks to its impressive depth of more than 9 kilometers, it ranks among the deepest in the world.
5th place: Bertha Rogers (Bertha Rogers, USA, Oklahoma, 9583 meters)
Bertha Rogers is the deepest well in the United States and one of the most impressive in the world. It is located in Oklahoma, near the city of Anadarko (just like its predecessor), in the oil-bearing basin of the same name. The purpose of its drilling was to find natural gas. Drilling was also carried out by Lone Star Technologies Inc.
True, in the end, no minerals were found, and the development of the well had to be abruptly stopped at around 9583 meters. The fact is that at this depth a deposit of molten sulfur was discovered. Further development was extremely dangerous, so the drilling was abruptly stopped.
Drilling for Bertha Rogers began in 1973 and lasted for about a year and a half. Even after the emergency completion of development, it was for some time the deepest in the world. Then, however, in the Soviet Union they graduated from the Kola Superdeep, which won the 'palm'.
4th place: Kola superdeep well (USSR-Russia, Murmansk region, 12262 meters)
The Kola superdeep well (SG-3) has long been the deepest in the world. Its drilling was completed at 12262 meters! True, it took a long time to reach such depth.
Work on the Kola Superdeep was started in 1970 and was carried out in several stages. On the first, it was possible to reach the mark of 7600 meters, and deepening to this level took four years. The legendary 12262 meters were achieved only at the last stage, in 1990. After that, they tried to deepen further for several more years, but to no avail. And in 1994 all drilling work was stopped.
Unfortunately, the future fate of the record holder is completely bleak. In 1995, funding for the project was completely terminated. Scientists and employees left the territory of SG-3. Without proper control, due to the harsh northern climate, buildings and structures around the mine began to collapse rapidly.
As a result, the well has been mothballed at the moment. There is a metal plug at the mouth. The buildings around are destroyed. The restoration of the work will require about 100 million rubles. If it is not carried out as soon as possible, the well will gradually collapse.
3rd place: Maersk Oil BD-04A (Qatar, 12,290 meters)
Well BD-04A, was developed by the international oil and gas company Maersk Oil (currently part of Total Group). Calling it one of the deepest in the world can only be a stretch. The fact is that 12.29 km is the length of its mine. And it does not go strictly vertically.
Almost 11 km of the shaft runs at an angle. Of course, not like in the subway, but also not strictly vertically, like in the Kola superdeep. But the development of the BD-04A took only 36 days, thanks to the use of modern and high-performance equipment (Transocean GSF Rig 127 platform).
BD-04A is located in one of the largest oil fields in the East – Al-Shahin. However, it was not developed for the search for minerals. BD-04A was drilled for geological exploration purposes – to determine where oil wells would be discovered in the future. Actually, this is why its mine runs not strictly vertically, but at an angle.
Maersk Oil BD-04A is one of the youngest ultra-deep wells. It was drilled in 2008. At the moment, BD-04A has been mothballed, since there is no special need for it – all data have been received, new fields are being developed.
2nd place: OP-11 (Russia, Sakhalin, 12345 meters)
OP-11 is an ultra-deep well drilled in early 2011 in the Odoptu field. It is located on Sakhalin. Exxon Neftegas Limited, a member of the Sakhalin-1 consortium, took part in the development of OP-11.
Like its predecessor, OP-11 can be considered the deepest, with some conventions. Its shaft was drilled with a large opening from the vertical straight line. Almost 12.5 kilometers is the length of its trunk. This geometry is due to the complexity of oil production. The field itself is located under the sea, and its mining platform is on the coast. Therefore, we had to drill not 'straight down', but 'sideways'.
Since there were no record dips, it took very little time to develop the site. The OP-11 was drilled for 60 days using technology and equipment from the Exxon Mobil Corporation, as well as a specially designed high-speed rig Yastreb.
OP-11 is currently in production. It is still owned by the Sakhalin-1 consortium, which supplies oil and gas to Russia and around the world.
1st place: Chaivo Z-44 (Russia, about 13 km)
The deepest well in the world, the record holder, has not yet been commissioned. This is the Chaivo Z-44 site located on Sakhalin. And it is being developed for the purpose of oil production. After commissioning, it is expected to be capable of producing about 2.3 billion barrels of 'black gold'.
At the moment, Chaivo Z-44 is still in development. Its depth will be about 13 kilometers. The exact mark can be found out only after the end of drilling.
The topology of Chaivo Z-44 also provides vertical deviations, like the rest of the leaders of the rating. However, they will not be significant. The mine mostly goes underground, rather than going sideways.
Chayvo Z-44 began development in 2017. So she is not only one of the deepest, but also one of the 'youngest'. Since it is being developed for a commercial purpose, it is unlikely to be abandoned – and it will become a full-fledged record holder.
Attention! This rating is subjective and does not constitute an advertisement and does not serve as a purchase guide. Before buying, you need to consult with a specialist.