Review of the best according to the editorial board. On the selection criteria. This material is subjective and does not constitute advertising and does not serve as a purchase guide. Before buying, you need to consult with a specialist.
Modern climatic technology available to the average consumer has long been no longer limited to air conditioners alone. Increasingly, city dwellers are turning to more advanced technological tools to create the most comfortable microclimate in a house or apartment. And one of the types of such devices is air cleaners, ionizers and so-called air washers. The latter most often combine several functions at once. Experts have analyzed the current market of climatic devices and have compiled a list of 15 models, dividing them into groups according to important features for the consumer.
- Air purifier of which company to choose
- Best inexpensive air cleaners
- Foxcleaner ion
- Timberk TAP FL150 SF
- The best air washers with a water filter (no consumables)
- Venta LW25
- Winia AWM-40
- Panasonic F-VXL40
- Leberg LW-20
- AIC S135
- The best air purifiers with multi-stage filtration
- AIC KJF-20B06
- Timberk TAP FL800 MF
- Daikin MC70LVM
- AIC XJ-3800A1
- REDMOND RAC-3704
- The best multifunctional climate devices for air purification, humidification and ionization
- Sharp KC-D51RW
- Panasonic F-VXH50
- Boneco W2055DR
- Which air purifier to buy
Air purifier of which company to choose
To begin with, we will briefly guide you what the brands themselves are, under which the air cleaners included in the rating are produced, and where the branded products are actually produced.
- Panasonic is the most recognizable brand on our list. A giant Japanese corporation, famous for its electronics for decades. Climatic equipment, including air washers, is mainly produced in China.
- Sharp is another famous Japanese company with a century of history. Known for high-quality high-tech electronics and household appliances. Sharp manufactures are scattered all over the world, but specifically the air cleaners are made in China.
- REDMOND is also a trade mark very well known to the domestic consumer. This is an international brand (USA, Canada, Israel) of high-quality household appliances, mainly in the middle price segment. The head office is located in Israel, and production is established in China. Part of the equipment supplied to the Russian market is assembled in the CIS countries.
- Timberk is a large international holding company that was born in Sweden. Now the central office is located in Israel. There are also subsidiaries in China, Finland and Russia. The production bases of the group of companies are located in several countries of the world, including the Russian Federation.
- Venta is a German trademark owned by Venta-Luftwäscher GmbH, which was founded in 1981. It specializes strictly in air purification and humidification systems. Equipment is produced on the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany itself.
- Winia is a rebranding product of Mando Climate Control, and even earlier Winia belonged to the famous Korean company Hyundai. All these transformations took place in 2000-2003, and since then, very good climatic technology has been released under the Winia brand. Production is established in South Korea itself.
- Leberg is a Norwegian company founded in 1963 and started with the production of ventilation systems. In the future, the company has successfully expanded its product range, entering the world market. Now almost all products are made in China.
- Daikin is a Japanese brand owned by Daikin Industries Ltd. with almost a century of history. The company specializes in the production of industrial air conditioners, heating and ventilation systems. Production is established, in addition to 5 factories in Japan itself, around the world – Belgium, Czech Republic, Southeast Asia, Australia and the USA. Air washers are collected mostly in China.
- Boneco is a Swiss brand of humidifiers and air purifiers. The direct manufacturer is the Swiss company Plaston AG, which has been operating in the climate technology market for over 60 years. Manufacturing facilities are located in Switzerland, Czech Republic, South Korea and China.
- Foxcleaner is a Russian trade mark. Relatively little known, but quite worthy of attention for a number of reasons. Foxcleaner products are manufactured in China.
- AIC is a 'guerrilla' brand that has long been disguised as Italian in origin. In fact, Italian is only the place of registration in it, and all products are made in China. Subsequently, it turned out that the roots of Air Intel ligent Comfort are completely Russian, which is not at all surprising against the background of the mass phenomenon of pseudo-foreign brands. But AIC products are not the worst, and this is the main thing.
|nomination||a place||Name of product||price|
|Best inexpensive air cleaners||1||Foxcleaner ion||6 490 RUB.|
|2||Timberk TAP FL150 SF||5 990 RUB.|
|The best air washers with a water filter (no consumables)||1||Venta LW25||19950 RUB|
|2||Winia AWM-40||11 900 RUB.|
|3||Panasonic F-VXL40||24 560 RUB.|
|4||Leberg LW-20||7 990 RUB.|
|5||AIC S135||6400 RUB.|
|The best air purifiers with multi-stage filtration||1||AIC KJF-20B06||9 950 RUB.|
|2||Timberk TAP FL800 MF||27 130 RUB.|
|3||Daikin MC70LV||30950 RUB.|
|4||AIC XJ-3800A1||17 300 RUB.|
|5||REDMOND RAC-3704||22 700 RUB.|
|The best multifunctional sinks for cleaning, humidifying and ionizing the air||1||Sharp KC-D51RW||17 980 RUB.|
|2||Panasonic F-VXH50||20 580 RUB.|
|3||Boneco W2055DR||RUB 24,990|
Best inexpensive air cleaners
First of all, we will consider the most budgetary solutions that are suitable for those who do not need wide functionality and a loud brand and do not want to spend a significant amount. Our experts considered Foxcleaner ion and Timberk TAP FL150 SF to be the optimal models combining the minimum price and acceptable quality.
Russian-made Foxcleaner Ion desktop air purifier is manufactured in China. It is a compact device with dimensions 175x220x150 mm and a weight of 1.5 kg. Extremely economical – consumes only 10 W and is able to serve a room up to 20 sq. meters.
Of the cleaning capabilities, Foxcleaner Ion has as many as four types of filters: HEPA filter, photocatalytic, electrostatic, carbon. In addition, an ultraviolet lamp for disinfection is installed – air gets under its influence after passing the filters. There is also an air ionizer.
Touch control, and according to consumer reviews, it is very simple and affordable. True, there is a downside to this accessibility – children are happy to press all the buttons that they can reach, and the Foxcleaner Ion is not equipped with a childproof function.
Adjustable fan speed – 2 modes. There is a timer for 12 hours and a compact display. Opinions about the noise level of this model were divided – for the most part, the noise of 40-45 dB suits consumers, with rare exceptions.
- simple, clear and accessible control;
- the presence of an ionizer;
- no protection from children; noise complaints come across.
Timberk TAP FL150 SF
The Timberk TAP FL150 SF brand air cleaner is manufactured in China. The air washer with dimensions 176x647x224 mm and weighing 4.27 kg implies floor installation. It is powered from the mains, consuming 60 W of electricity.
Air purification takes place by running the flow through HEPA and photocatalytic filters. The UV lamp kills harmful bacteria. Timberk TAP FL150 SF is capable of handling up to 238cc. meters of air per hour. The fan speed is adjustable.
In terms of ergonomics, this model is also high enough for its price category. There is a timer for delayed shutdown with a 'capacity' of as much as 24 hours. Electronic control, modes are displayed on the LCD display with a nice backlight. Filter clogging indication is present.
Most of the users note the real effectiveness of this model, especially allergy sufferers notice it unmistakably. There is minimal dissatisfaction with the noise, but there are no really serious complaints in this regard. The only problem is that the frequency of breakdowns is clearly higher than the statistical error after days, weeks or months of work.
- effectively fights pollen and odors;
- comfortable carrying handle.
- relatively frequent breakdowns;
The best air washers with a water filter (no consumables)
Now let's look at another type of climate technology – purifiers / humidifiers with a water filter. This type of air purifier does not involve the use of consumables, which are often very expensive in air washers. The following models attracted the attention of our experts: Venta LW25, Winia AWM-40, Panasonic F-VXL40, Leberg LW-20 and AIC S135.
The German-made Venta LW25 air washer is produced at Venta-Luftwäscher GmbH's own factories in Germany. The dimensions of the device are 300x330x300 mm, and the weight is 3.8 kg.
This is a traditional type of humidifier capable of serving rooms up to 40 sq. meters. A voluminous 7 liter water tank provides a fairly long operation without the need to refuel (the low water level indication function is present in this model).
The air cleaner is controlled from an electronic panel. Three fan rotation modes are supported. At the first speed, the noise is practically not felt – only 25 dB. On the second and third, it is already felt, but still does not exceed quite comfortable 42 dB.
Venta LW25 is perhaps the most controversial and described model in this category, and we started with it for a reason. The fact is that there are just a huge number of the most enthusiastic reviews about this model on the Web, but there is also a significant percentage of completely opposite ones, which makes one doubt the objectivity of one or the other.
If we look dispassionately at the characteristics, we can say that the claims of consumers regarding the unjustified price are really justified. Even if this is a 'payback' for the German assembly, it is still worthwhile to understand that the Venta LW25 is an extremely simple device.
- low noise level (at first speed);
- large water tank.
- poor functionality;
- discrepancy between prices and real possibilities.
The Winia AWM-40 air washer is manufactured and assembled at the company's 'home' plant in South Korea. This alone has had a very positive impact on the overall degree of independent reviews, in which buyers appreciate the quality of materials and workmanship.
The dimensions of the device are 315x390x310 mm, and the weight is 6 kg. The volume of the water tank is as much as 9 liters, which is also positively appreciated by users. The air cleaner is also quite economical in energy consumption – 11 W.
The way the evaporator works in this model is traditional. The fan speed is controlled via an electronic panel with LCD display. There are also filter clogging alert functions and a built-in ionizer. The hygrostat relatively accurately (as far as possible for 'elementary' hygrometers in air washes) determines the humidity and maintains the optimum level.
What's a little frustrating about this model is the performance. It is much lower than that of the same Timberk TAP FL150 SF – about 150 cubic meters. meters of air per hour. In practice, this is expressed in the fact that in the treated room you need to keep tightly closed windows, otherwise the moisturizing effect drops sharply. Also, some users do not like the inability to turn off the ionizer.
Another point – buyers are faced with the fact that it is very difficult to find a replaceable filter on sale. But Winia AWM-40 copes well with its functions without it due to the water filter.
- very spacious water tank;
- quiet work;
- high-quality assembly;
- attractive design;
- no remote control;
- shortage of replaceable bss filters on sale.
- the ionizer does not turn off;
- weak effect when a window or door is open.
The Panasonic F-VXL40 climate complex is produced in Japan itself. It is the only Panasonic air washer to boast a Japanese build. Buyers are unanimous in their appreciation of the stylish design of the air purifier, but this is far from its main advantage.
The dimensions of the air washer are 330x590x250 mm and the weight is 7.2 kg. It consumes 52 watts, which is quite a bit, given the decent functionality. The recommended area of the serviced premises is 30 sq. meters.
The air purifier is equipped with a precision hygrostat and air purity sensor. Cleaning is carried out by means of a HEPA filter and a water filter. The fan speed is adjustable, but only two speeds are available, and users notice this as a small minus ('asks' for an average speed). At the first speed, the operation of the device is almost inaudible, but at the second sink it gives out a noticeable noise, not always fitting into the 49 dB declared by the manufacturer.
As for the humidification function, most users speak very respectfully about it. The effect is really felt and confirmed by measurements. The only thing – it's not entirely clear what the developers were guided by when they designed a very limited – 1.6 l – water tank. With a nominal capacity of 240 cc meters per hour water consumption is 350 ml / h. This means that water must be added at least every 4.5 hours. But, again, this does not affect the direct functions of air washing – the quality of cleaning and humidification raises no objections.
When using for the first time, it is recommended to remove the filter from the water tray and rinse it under running water, otherwise it will emit an unpleasant plastic smell.
- unconditional efficiency;
- Beautiful design;
- safety automation;
- there is a hum and vibration;
- lack of 'average' speed;
The air purifier of the Swedish trade mark Leberg LW-20 is produced in China. This is the case when an overall good air purifier gets negative reviews for its not-so-outstanding build quality.
Air cleaner dimensions – 330x435x300 mm, weight – 5.7 kg. Equipped with a 6.2 l water tank. Quite economical – consumes only 15 watts. The manufacturer claims a service area of 28 sq. m, but independent reviews say that the real area that this model can handle is one third less. The declared noise level is very low – 25 dB, and users in the mass confirm this.
The fan speed is controlled from the electronic panel. Modes and other data are shown on the display.
The main problem faced by users is the inaccurate operation of the water flow sensor. Due to false alarms, the device often turns off when the tank is full. The hygrometer readings are also inaccurate, which is why maintaining a certain level of humidity turns out to be erroneous.
- low power consumption;
- relatively affordable price;
- quiet work;
- attractive design;
- frequent breakdowns;
- not the best build quality;
- inaccurate operation of sensors;
The AIC S135 air purifier and humidifier is made in China. This model stands out for its original design, which attracts mixed reviews, but overall positive. There are also some complaints about the bulkiness, but objectively this model does not fundamentally differ in dimensions from equivalent solutions.
The dimensions of the device are 37.4×30.6×32.5 cm, and the weight is 3.4 kg. The volume of the water tank is 3.5 liters, which is quite enough at a water flow rate of 250 ml / h. AIC S135 is capable of serving premises up to 30 sq. meters, while consuming up to 22 watts.
The air cleaner supports two fan speeds that are mechanically controlled. The volume of operation in these two modes is polar: 20 dB in the first (which is good) and 50 dB in the second (and this is bad).
Let us emphasize that the price of AIC S135, indicated in the advantages and disadvantages, is not a contradiction. This is a reflection of the opinion of the mass of users, who generally note that the device is inexpensive, but its functionality is so limited that even such a price seems too high to many in the context of this particular air cleaner.
- affordable price;
- silent in the first mode;
- original design;
- unjustified price;
- noisy in the second mode;
- unpleasant odor after downtime;
The best air purifiers with multi-stage filtration
Now let us consider the models of air purifiers that involve several stages of air flow filtration. Experts have identified five models from a variety of options: AIC KJF-20B06, Timberk TAP FL800 MF, Daikin MC70LVM , AIC XJ-3800A1 and REDMOND RAC-3704.
The air purifier of the pseudo-Italian (actually Russian) trademark AIC KJF-20B06 is produced in China. Its dimensions are 360x500x180 mm, and its weight is 6 kg.
Nominally, this air purifier should serve a 40 sq. meters, while consuming up to 50 watts. In fact, user reviews are practically polarized – there are quite a few complaints that the device does not fully cope with its functions.
Air is purified by passing the flow through a set of filters: pre-purification, HEPA filter, photocatalytic, carbon. Some consumers are suspicious of the thickness of the filter package – only 1.5 cm, they say it is too small. In addition, the air exchange capacity of this model is 200 cubic meters / h, which is quite a bit.
A UV lamp and an ionizer are built in, and some users also doubt their performance for various reasons.
The air cleaner is controlled electronically, there is a display, a shutdown timer and, perhaps most importantly, a remote control.
- easy to use;
- remote control.
- the smell of plastic at the first start;
- noisy even at night mode;
- lack of filters;
Timberk TAP FL800 MF
The Timberk TAP FL800 MF air purifier is manufactured in China, but probably under the strict control of the company's headquarters, or at its own production facilities in the Middle Kingdom, since this model deserves praise in terms of quality.
The air washer has dimensions of 362x830x231 mm and weighs as much as 14.5 kg – many times more than any of the above models. But this weight is fully justified by useful features and high-quality, reliable materials.
The productivity of Timberk TAP FL800 MF is 410 cubic meters / h, which is more than twice the performance of the previous version (AIC KJF-20B06). We used practically unanimous opinion that the purifier honestly fulfills the characteristics declared by the manufacturer. Power consumption is quite acceptable – 56 watts.
The cleaning levels are pre-filters, photocatalytic, electrostatic, carbon. They are complemented by an ultraviolet disinfection lamp. There is a filter clogging indicator and an air purity sensor.
The functionality is also enriched with a sleep timer up to 9 hours in 1 hour increments, electronic control and a display. The fan speed is adjustable.
- high performance;
- simple control;
- high price;
- no remote control.
The Japanese Daikin MC70LVM air purifier is assembled at Daikin's own plant in China. The quality of materials and workmanship is very solid, which is confirmed by most users. The dimensions of the device are 403x576x241 mm, and the weight is 8.5 kg.
The air cleaner is powerful enough – the productivity is even higher than that of Timberk TAP FL800 MF – 420 cubic meters / h. The maximum power consumption is 65W and is reduced to 7W in Eco mode. Depending on the mode, the noise level of this model can be from 16 to 28 dB.
There are also many positive reviews regarding the clarity and accuracy of the response of the dust and odor sensors, which start the cleaner or increase the intensity of its operation to get rid of dirt as soon as possible. The cleaning itself is provided by a pre-filter, photocatalytic, electrostatic.
The Daikin MC70LVM functionality is complemented by a built-in powerful ionizer, delayed switch-off timer, remote control and childproof lock.
- high-quality assembly;
- high performance;
- protection from children;
- remote control;
- precise sensors and automation;
- solid design;
- high price;
- specific odor from the deodorizing filter.
The Russian brand AIC XJ-3800A1 air purifier is produced in China at local factories under a contract system. This air purifier differs from all those discussed above, a fairly high power consumption – up to 80 watts. At the same time, the performance is decent, but far from exceptional – 360 m3 / h. The dimensions of the device are 343x610x255 mm, and the weight is 6.85 kg.
The manufacturer claims that the device is capable of serving a room up to 60 sq. m. Real reviews indicate that the AIC XJ-3800A1 significantly falls short of effective air treatment in such a room.
The air purifier is equipped with air purity control sensors and turns on or increases power automatically when it detects contamination. Cleaning is carried out through three filters: HEPA-filter, photocatalytic, carbon. Cleaning is complemented by an ionizer and a disinfecting UV lamp. The cleaner works quite quietly and starts making noise only at maximum speed – up to 52 dB.
The functionality is quite at the level: fan speed control, display, electronic control, remote control.
- remote control;
- simple control;
- quiet operation at 1 and 2 speeds;
- high price for such a device;
- low quality materials and workmanship .;
- noise and vibration;
- 'medical' smell in the first days of operation;
The REDMOND RAC-3704 air purifier is made in China, but it is notable for its solid assembly and good quality materials, like almost all other products of this brand.
In terms of the declared performance and power consumption (365 cubic meters / h and 76 W, respectively), this model is almost similar to the AIC XJ-3800A1, but if we compare the reviews of real users, REDMOND shows a much more distinct effect. The dimensions and proportions of the model, by the way, are also closely comparable to the AIC XJ-3800A1 – 345x610x215 mm. Able to serve premises up to 46 sq. meters.
Air purification is provided by a H10 class HEPA filter, as well as carbon and photocatalytic filters. The bactericidal effect is provided by a UV lamp. A rather powerful ionizer and an air purity sensor are also built in, which controls the automation.
REDMOND RAC-3704 allows adjustment of the fan rotation speed, and at lower modes, the noise is minimal. The purifier starts to 'sound' noticeably (up to 65 dB) only at the maximum mode.
The air cleaner is controlled electronically, including through the remote control, the modes are displayed on a compact display.
- high-quality assembly;
- low noise level in lower modes;
- remote control;
- quick noticeable effect;
- useless filter replacement indicators;
- expensive consumables;
The best multifunctional climate devices for air purification, humidification and ionization
And at the end of the review, we will consider multifunctional climate systems 'all in one', which provide air purification from suspended solids and odors, increasing and maintaining humidity, as well as saturating it with charged ions. Experts considered the Sharp KC-D51RW, Panasonic F-VXH50 and Boneco W2055DR models worthy of attention.
The Sharp KC-D51RW multifunctional air purifier is made in China, but in this case it is only 'geography', and the quality of the device fully matches the impeccable reputation of this Japanese technology giant.
The dimensions of the air cleaner are 399x615x230 mm, and the weight is 9.2 kg. Designed to service premises up to 38 sq. meters. The capacity is calculated very accurately in relation to the estimated volume of the room – 306 m3 / h. The observations of the most meticulous users confirm the full compliance of the real work with the declared indicators.
As for the humidification system, users are slightly dissatisfied with the small volume of the water tank – 2.5 liters. At a nominal flow rate of 600 ml / h, it has to be replenished quite often.
Air purification is provided by carbon and HEPA filters, which require vanishingly rare replacement – once every 10 years. Built-in powerful ionizer with ion rain function. The hygrostat is equipped with a digital hygrometer with an accuracy of + 1% and, in combination with air purity sensors, ensures the 'smart' operation of the automation
The fan speed is regulated from an electronic panel with a display and a timer. A tangible disadvantage of this model is the lack of remote control, but in general, according to customer reviews, this disadvantage can be experienced against the background of a lot of advantages and adequate cost.
- reasonable price for brand and quality;
- quiet operation in lower modes;
- high ergonomics;
- durable filters;
- accurate detection of dirt and odors;
- no remote control;
- small volume of the water tank.
The Japanese Panasonic F-VXH50 air purifier is manufactured in China. This is a multifunctional device capable of serving rooms up to 40 sq. meters with an electricity consumption of 43 watts. Unit dimensions – 360x560x230 mm, weight – 8.3 kg.
The humidification system consumes up to 500 ml / h of water per hour, and if a serious increase in humidity is expected, the tank volume of 2.3 liters for some users is insufficient.
Air purification is provided by pre-cleaning filters, air, humidifying and deodorizing. The manufacturer claims the impressive durability of the filters – 10 years, but in fact, most of the users claim that after a year or two of operation without replacing filters, the efficiency drops significantly and foreign unpleasant odors appear. Replacement filters themselves are quite expensive.
Ergonomics in this model is represented by intuitive electronic control, the ability to adjust the fan speed, and the presence of a lock to block access to children. The disadvantage of the model is that there is no remote control.
At minimum modes, the operation of the device is practically inaudible – 18-20 dB. At maximum mode, there is already a noticeable noise of about 50 dB.
- tangible effect;
- quiet work (not at maximum);
- stylish design;
- child lock;
- no remote control;
- small water tank;
- expensive consumables;
- the durability of the filters does not correspond to the declared one;
The climatic complex of the Swiss brand Boneco W2055DR is produced in the Czech Republic. This is a rather peculiar unit, primarily due to its proportions and size – 360x360x360 mm. Many users consider such parameters cumbersome, given that it cannot be placed close to the wall and interior items. The weight of the device is 5.9 kg.
The declared service area is 50 sq. meters with an energy consumption of only 20 watts. This efficiency is questionable, and buyers confirm that the declared capacity of 300 ml / h is clearly not true. The volume of the water tank is acceptable – 7 liters.
Air cleaning is carried out by the interaction of the air stream with a set of discs that rotate in contact with water. No consumables are needed for this model, but the flip side of the coin for this convenience is the extremely inconvenient and time-consuming cleaning that is required every week and is time-consuming.
As for ionization, in Boneco W2055DR, this function does not mean at all what users expect – just the only ionizing silver ISS rod, which is only capable of a bactericidal effect (does not allow water to deteriorate during a long idle time), and the generation of charged ions itself is very weak .
Quiet enough, the air cleaner works only at the minimum mode – 25 dB, which is also perceived by users as a disadvantage.
The automation in this air cleaner is controlled by a hygrostat, indicators of low water level, filter pollution. But the hygrostat, according to customer reviews, is not accurate enough.
The plus of the Boneco W2055DR is the presence of a simple but pleasant air aromatization function.
- high-quality European assembly;
- flavoring function;
- no consumables needed;
- unjustified price;
- extremely inconvenient to care for;
- questionable ionizer;
Which air purifier to buy
Now let's summarize and guide you which cleaner in each group is best suited in a particular context.
- With budget air cleaners, everything is more or less obvious. If the room is small and you are cramped in free space, the desktop Foxcleaner Ion is the best option. Otherwise, it makes sense to take Timberk TAP FL150 SF, since these models are identical in price.
- Of the air washers with a water filter, the absolute favorite is the Panasonic F-VXL40, but it is also the most expensive of the group. If you have an extremely limited budget to buy an air washer, the AIC S135 will do, but you will need to come to terms with the listed disadvantages. The Leberg LW-20 is quite good and inexpensive, but judging by the reviews, this model suspiciously often breaks down. Venta LW25 and Winia AWM-40 are almost equal at the price of the 'average', only Winia will be clearly more functional. The presence of even single, but sharply negative reviews on the Venta LW25 should at least orient the buyer to a scrupulous check of the clarity of the warranty.
- Of the air cleaners with multi-stage filtration, the best solution in all respects can be confidently considered the Japanese Daikin MC70LVM, but it is many times more expensive than neighboring solutions. Also a pretty good option – REDMOND RAC-3704 and its shortcomings are not so critical. Both options from AIC are only suitable in case of austerity. Even if the budget is limited, it is better to strain yourself and take at least Timberk TAP FL800 MF.
- Finally, the Sharp KC-D51RW is by far the best MFP for air purification. Even the second Japanese – Panasonic F-VXH50 loses significantly not only in quality and functionality, but also in price. Boneco W2055DR looks very, very 'pale' against their background.
Attention! This rating is subjective and does not constitute an advertisement and does not serve as a purchase guide. Before buying, you need to consult with a specialist.