Review of the best according to the editors. About the selection criteria. The the material is subjective, is not advertising and is not serves as a guide to the purchase. Before purchase is needed consultation with a specialist.
Our planet is rich in valuable resources, but there are some the amount of which is measured in crumbs. Oddly enough, these elements – one of the most popular in the world. Among them are heavy metals. Imagine an 8-centimeter heavy cube metal in the world weighs as much as 12 kg (!). Today it will be about “heavyweights” in the world of metals.
Top 10 most heavy metals
|Top 10 most heavy metals||1||Tantalum||16.64 g / cm3|
|2||Uranus||18.92 g / cm3|
|3||Tungsten||19.21 g / cm3|
|4||Gold||19.85 g / cm3|
|5||Plutonium||19.85 g / cm3|
|6||Neptunium||20.48 g / cm3|
|7||Rhenium||21.01 g / cm3|
|8||Platinum||21.44 g / cm3|
|9||Iridium||22.53 g / cm3|
|10||Osmium||22.62 g / cm3|
Density: 16.64 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 3017 0С / 5458 0С
Very rare metal, but far from the heaviest in the world. IN vivo is a silvery white solid a substance with a slight bluish tint (oxide film). Was discovered in the distant 1802, but it was not immediately possible to isolate it: until 1844, he was identified with another metal – niobium.
Tantalum is one of the most refractory in the world (according to this indicator it surpasses even the heaviest metal of the planet) and does not enter reaction with air: oxidation of its surface occurs only when increasing air temperature up to 280 0С, which in vivo impossible.
One of the interesting features of tantalum is its paramagnetism (when metal enters a magnetic field magnetized in the direction of this field). Also tantalum striking in its resistance to aggressive environments: it the surface does not “give in” even to 70% nitric acid. This unusual metal is used in the military industry (when creating ammunition), medicine (in the manufacture of prostheses), in the atomic industry (when creating nuclear reactors), etc.
Interesting fact: despite the high strength, tantalum is very plastic (it can be compared with gold), so pure metal very comfortable to use.
Density: 18.92 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 1132 0С / 3745 0С
The main and not the best characterizing this solid metal Unlike other representatives of the rating – its radioactivity. Uranium, being in vivo, goes through a long stage transformation, consisting of 14 stages and ending it conversion to lead. True, this process lasts billions. years old.
In its pure form, uranium has a large weight, silver-white color, high ductility (it is slightly softer than steel) and weakly expressed paramagnetic properties. Uranium is easily oxidized in contact with air, and a powdery substance spontaneously ignites at a temperature of about 150 0C.
The main and obvious uses of uranium are the nuclear industry. An active “consumer” of metal is nuclear power (production of reactors, power plants, etc.). In recent years they began to make a special bet on the development of uranium mining methods from sea water, where the concentration of solids is 3 μg / l).
Density: 19.21 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 3422 0С / 3745 0С
Its quite original name (translated from Latin. – “wolf foam “) received because it was interfered with tin ore smelting tin, turning it into a slag foam. That is, in fact devoured like a wolf sheep.
Tungsten is a brilliant solid light gray color. This is the most refractory metal on the planet: its melting point is close to the solar photosphere. Besides, has the highest proven boiling point on the planet. True, a “competitor” has recently appeared – a siborg with a higher (assumed) melting point, but it’s reliable for now unknown due to the short life of the metal.
At one time, tungsten made a splash in industry and today it is used as an indispensable basis for heat-resistant alloys. In addition, high strength provides this metal widespread use in various fields of human activity: it is used in aircraft engines, incandescent filaments, vacuum equipment, etc.
Density: 19.85 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 1064 0С / 2856 0С
One of the hardest metals on earth, but at the same time characterized by incredible ductility: from it you can make a sheet only 0.1 microns thick (the so-called gold leaf). For therefore, the noble yellow metal found a worthy place in jewelry making. But at the same time, gold has a high density, which greatly simplifies the process of its extraction.
Gold has a very high electrical conductivity, what could make this metal indispensable in the process of creating microcircuits, but alas: the cost of raw materials is very high, and prevalence is small.
Gold does not react with oxygen and most elements. The metal is not susceptible to acids and alkalis. (exception – royal vodka, which serves to verify purity metals). Gold is one of the few metals not used. only in industry, but also for the benefit of man (his active used in homeopathy, dentistry). Also noble metal has been actively used in banking: it is still is a guarantee of stability of any currency and reliable investment tool.
Density: 19.85 g / cm3
Melting point / boiling point: 640 0С / 3235 0С
The “younger brother” of uranium and the owner of high radioactivity. IN mined in vivo, but little and rarely, because it simply impractical, but it is easy to obtain in the process multistage conversion of uranium. He became the first chemically artificial substance, produced on an industrial scale.
Enriched uranium is used to produce plutonium. natural type. A few years ago it was reported closing in 2010 the year of the last plutonium producing reactor in the world (in Russia). But in the same year, a nuclear reactor was launched in Japan. True for a long time he did not have to work out due to what happened after a couple months after the start of the accident: the reactor was stopped, and after the tragedy on Fukushima-1 and completely changed their minds to run. In 2016 it was adopted decision to dispose of the reactor.
Due to the obvious military potential, plutonium has become actively use in the production of nuclear weapons (the so-called weapons-grade plutonium) as an energy source for spaceships and as fuel for nuclear reactors.
Density: 20.48 g / cm3
Melting point / boiling point: 640 0С / 3235 0С
Another radioactive “brainchild” of uranium obtained during nuclear reactions. Considered the first transuranic an element. Relatively mild, good ductility, slowly reacts with air, quickly oxidizing at its high temperature. On earth, this metal is found in trace amount, therefore its extraction in vivo simply meaningless.
Neptunium is dangerous to humans through radioactive decay: about 70-80% of its particles settle in the bone tissue, which leads to complete its damage (the degree of damage depends on the valence of the isotopes). Its main application is the production of plutonium.
Density: 21.01 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 3186 0С / 5596 0С
Silver dense metal detection predicted Mendeleev back in 1871, and its actual discovery happened only after a century and a half (in 1925). Rhenium has become last among open elements with a stable isotope: all those discovered later didn’t.
Rhenium is one of the rarest elements of our planet. According to geochemical properties similar to tungsten. Silver white metal considered one of the hardest and densest among all existing. In its pure form, rhenium is plastic at room temperature, but at this fully retains its strength even with repeated heating or cooling.
Rhenium is difficult to access, and its production is very costly, therefore, metal is one of the most expensive: price per 1 kg ranges from 1,000 to 10,000 dollars. Rhenium “mining” occurs mainly in the process of processing molybdenum and copper raw materials.
The scope of rhenium is due to a number of its properties (refractoriness, resistance to most reagents, etc.). At this takes into account its high cost: the use of metal is limited those cases when it gives an advantage over use others. Rhenium is mainly used in rocket production. parts (especially jet and rocket engines).
Density: 21.44 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 1768 0С / 3825 0С
Hardy and hard platinum almost reached the top our rating, which is not surprising: this is one of the most difficult metals in the world. A precious substance is also considered one of the rarest on the planet. By the way, even the so-called native metal can not be considered pure: it contains up to 20% iron, and rhodium, iridium, osmium, less often – copper.
Platinum is considered one of the most inert metals, not reacting with acids and alkalis. Shiny silver metal is actively used in jewelry and glasswork, medicine (surgery), chemical industry, automotive, and due to its resistance to vacuum – also when creating space apparatuses.
Interesting fact: the majority of the world’s platinum reserves “hidden” in the bowels of only 5 countries – Russia, China, Zimbabwe, South Africa and the USA.
Density: 22.53 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 2466 0С / 4428 0С
In fact, iridium shares the first place with osmium – the difference in the density of these substances is hundredths of a gram. Nonetheless this “heavyweight”, nevertheless, this very little easier. This is very rare, valuable metal that does not interact with acids, water and even air. Iridium (as well as the leader of the rating of the heaviest metals) – a refractory substance that is difficult to process.
Translated from Greek means “rainbow”, which is not surprising, because iridium salts differ in incredible colors: from copper red to bright blue. White with a touch of silver, as if iridium is considered the most durable and one of rarest on the planet: no more than 10 tons are mined per year, moreover most deposits are located at the site meteorites.
It is used in high-precision engineering as an indicator tightness of welds. It is actively used by paleontologists and geologists as a temporary indicator of the discovered layer of or another breed. Often one of the heaviest metals on the planet. used to produce electricity. In recent years, iridium got a rather unexpected and unusual use: for electrical stimulation of nerves and the creation of prostheses of the eye and ear human apparatus.
Density: 22.62 g / cm3
Melting / boiling point: 2466 0С / 4428 0С
The heaviest “representative” of the periodic table, and, accordingly, the heaviest metal in the world. The year 1803 became for of this element is actually turning, because during this period time, its discovery took place literally in racing conditions: two scientists simultaneously discovered osmium – Tennant and de Fourcroix. But Tennant, nevertheless, achieved clearer and deeper results, and in official documents filed by the Royal Society of London, indicated that the found element is conditionally divided into two metals – iridium and osmium.
The extraction of osmium requires considerable costs, since it is rare and difficult to impact. Hence the impressive cost – 15,000 dollars per 1 gram of substance. Osmium density is just a little exceeds that of iridium, although the properties of both species not yet fully understood. The heaviest metal in the world “unfriendly” to high temperatures: it is very refractory.
Osmium is included in the group of platinum elements and conditionally noble. And, although when osmium hardens, it forms beautiful silver-blue crystals, to create jewelry he does not suitable because it is completely non-ductile and difficult to forge. It has a specific smell – garlic-chlorine mixture.
It is highly valued because of its strength: metal is often added to composition for the manufacture of units subjected to frequent and strong friction. Such alloys become incredibly strong and resistant to any exposure.
Attention! This rating is subjective, not advertising and does not serve as a guide to the purchase. Before the purchase consultation with a specialist is necessary.