Review of the best according to the editors. About the selection criteria. The the material is subjective, is not advertising and is not serves as a guide to the purchase. Before purchase is needed consultation with a specialist.
Diamond is a form of crystalline carbon, the hardest mineral on the ground. Usually transparent and colorless, may also have yellow, brown and, occasionally, pink, red or green. Sometimes luminescent – glows under the influence of ultraviolet or x-rays. Lies in frozen lava – kimberlite and lamproite tubes.
Diamonds are mined on all continents except Antarctica. IN Russia and the world leading the Russian group of companies in production ALROSA (Diamonds of Russia – Sakha), however, at the total cost of mined her stones, she is superior to the international corporation De Beers, developing fields in South Africa. Also significant Australian-British concern Rio Tinto holds market share Group Together, three corporations mine diamonds 70% of diamonds in the world.
After special processing (cutting), the diamond turns into A diamond is one of the most valuable gemstones in the world. Market cutters are highly monopolized – this is one of the reasons for the high cost diamonds. Due to its hardness, this stone is also used. as a cutting material – knives, drills and cutters are made from it, and from diamond powder abrasive materials. Diamonds can also used as semiconductors.
A special unit of mass is used to estimate the size of the diamond. – a carat equal to 0.2 grams. One carat is one carob seed tree, known for the fact that all its seeds are about the same weight. Due to this feature, such seeds were previously used. jewelers instead of weights on the scales, and now for gems and pearls continue to use the traditional unit of mass.
- Rating of the largest diamond deposits in the world
- 1st place: Jwaneng (Botswana)
- 2nd place: Yubileinoe (Russia, Yakutia)
- 3rd place: Successful (Yakutia)
- 4th place: Mir (Yakutia)
- 5th place: Argyll (Australia)
- 6th place: Katoka (Angola)
- 7th place: Venice (South Africa)
- 8th place: V.P. Mushroom (Russia, Arkhangelsk region)
- 9th place: Orapa (Botswana)
Rating of the largest diamond deposits in the world
|The largest diamond deposits in the world||1||Jwaneng (Botswana)||5.0|
|2||Yubileinoe (Russia, Yakutia)||4.9|
|7||Venice (South Africa)||4.4|
|8||Field named after V.P. Mushroom (Russia, Arkhangelsk region)||4.3|
1st place: Jwaneng (Botswana)
Jwaneng quarry is considered the richest in the world – it is mined here 12-15 million carats of diamonds per year, total reserves are unknown, but they don’t see the end yet. There are 3 kimberlite tube. Mining is conducted in an open way, the depth of the quarry is more than 350 meters.
The quarry is located west of Gaborone, the capital of Botswana, on distance of 120 km. In its place, the closed city of Jwaneng was created – in about 2100 diamond ore miners live there, has its own the airport. The mining is carried out by the Debswan company – a joint De Beers enterprise and government. Career development started in 1982, to mine stones in today’s scale here planned at least until 2032.
This natural wealth has transformed Botswana, formerly one from the poorest countries of Africa, to one of the richest. Country was able to avoid the “resource curse” haunting other countries, rich in minerals that can never get out poverty According to the laws of Botswana, diamonds mined therein must be faceted within the country – so locals get more work places. However, so far, unemployment has not been defeated, and it’s still a long time before Botswana can develop other sectors of the economy and get rid of resource dependence.
2nd place: Yubileinoe (Russia, Yakutia)
Russia is a world leader in diamond mining. At the same time, 82% of the diamond The country’s wealth is located in Yakutia. There, in Mirny district Republic, the kimberlite pipe is located 153 million carats of precious stones. Its area is 59 hectares, the shape of the tube is pear-shaped. Found a field in 1975, 9 years after that, they began to build a quarry, and in 1990 began prey. The quarry has reached a depth of 320 meters, it is planned to deepen it up to 720 m.
Nearby is a small satellite tube “Lake”, which discovered earlier, and further searches led to the “Jubilee”. Diamonds mined from the Yubileinaya pipe, as well as from the Aikhal pipes and Komsomolskaya produces Aikhal mining and processing plant Combine is the leader in production among ALROSA GOKs. Crater mining may be conducted until 2030 – perhaps by then they will be found additional stocks. The largest diamond obtained from this deposits, weighed 235.2 carats, it was extracted in 2013.
3rd place: Successful (Yakutia)
The third place is occupied by another field in Yakutia – the quarry Successful. It lies 20 km from the Arctic Circle, in Mirny district. Discovered stone deposits Soviet geologist Vladimir Nikolayevich Schukin in 1955, for which he received the Lenin Prize. Later on at this place the village of Udachny arose, now becoming a city. Mining began in 1971 and was originally conducted in an open way, in 2014 it was the launch complex of the underground mine was commissioned.
Udachnyi quarry is formed by two diamond-bearing pipes – Eastern and Western. Tubes run parallel and near the surface meet. Together they contain 152 million carats of diamonds – a little less than in the Jubilee. Projected career depth at field location – 640 meters. If it is reached, Udachny will become the deepest diamond career in Russia.
The population of Udachny is about 11.5 thousand people. Udachninsky mining and processing enterprise – the city-forming enterprise – It extracts stones from the pipes of the Udachny quarry and the Zarnitsa pipes. IN 1974 a nuclear explosion was carried out here to facilitate production “Crystal”. Eight such explosions were planned, but due to the fact that radioactive products came to the surface, from further The use of nuclear energy has been abandoned.
4th place: Mir (Yakutia)
Another large Yakutskoye deposit Mir – lies 850 km to west of Yakutsk, in the valley of the Irelyakh River. Single kimberlite the tube contains 141 million carats of diamonds, it originated in 362 million volcanic eruptions years ago. Discovered deposits June 13, 1955. Geologists sent on the radio code: “lit a pipe of the world, excellent tobacco.” So the field got its name.
In 1957, ore mining began in the deposit. There is a new city - Mirny, the city-forming enterprise was Mirny GOK, now owned by ALROSA. Until 2001, diamond ore was mined open pit, the quarry reached a depth of 525 meters and a diameter of 1.2 km A spiral road was created along which from the bottom of the quarry trucks went upstairs, passing a path of 8 km. In the same the year production was stopped and resumed only in 2009, already underground method. To continue field development it was planned to go deep to 1 km or more. However in 2017 due accident, the mine was flooded and diamond mining ceased before present time.
The Mir deposit owns the largest diamond mined in Of Russia. He was removed from the ground on December 23, 1980 and weighed 342.5 carat. It was named in honor of the then event – the name of the XXVI Congress CPSU “.
In the city of Mirny was supposed to implement a fantastic project – “the city under the dome.” The idea was that the whole city placed under a translucent dome, air from outside controlled by. Under this roof was supposed to live 100 thousand people. Now only 35 thousand live in Mirny. Idea for now is utopian in nature, implementation, if any, expected soon.
5th place: Argyll (Australia)
Argyle is Australia’s largest diamond mine, where lies 140 million carats of gemstones. Located on northwest of the country, in the eastern part of Kimberley County. Discovered diamond pipe in 1976, exploring the river. Were here before hills covered with greenery, but with the discovery of diamonds everything changed – a working village was created, the landscape was replaced by anthropogenic.
The average quality of diamonds is small, predominantly colored. in brown colored stones. But occasionally, in about 1% of cases, the rarest pink diamonds come across – 90% of such stones in the world mined in Argyll. This type of stone is the main reason why which field is valued. Pink diamonds are divided into several categories – pink, purple-pink and pink roses “(Pink Rose), that is, brown-pink. The most valuable red stones are considered.
Now the reserves of pink stones in the deposit are coming to naught. Because the price of them is only growing, from which they plan to extract their profit competitors of Australian miners in Russia, South Africa, Angola and other countries.
6th place: Katoka (Angola)
In southern Africa, another major field is located – kimberlite pipe “Katoka”. Located in riverbed sediments Katoka and Lova. This place holds 130 million carats. precious stones. The surface area of the tube is 65.7 ha. The field is jointly owned by companies from various countries – Angola, Russia, France.
The kimberlite deposits were discovered here in 1968. In 1995 year Alrosa – the Russian group of diamond mining companies – began build a factory in Angola and mine diamonds. Now mining gems in Angola is only gaining momentum – deposits “Katoka” should be enough for 40 years.
Katoka is of interest not only to people directly mining diamonds, but also for scientists. Geologists from Russia is exploring a field: in contrast to Russian deposits kimberlites, pipes in Angola were almost not subject to erosion. Thanks to this, it is possible to study the “anatomy” of the tube, confinement of diamonds to one or another type of kimberlite rocks.
7th place: Venice (South Africa)
South Africa’s largest diamond mine is located where lies 12 kimberlite pipes. Together they contain 102 million carats of diamonds. Almost 70% of these stones in the country are mined in this mine.
The international company De Beers (De Beers), founded in South Africa in 1888. De Beers once was a monopolist setting prices for diamonds worldwide, now she lost this status, but is still a leader in their mining – 40% of the world’s diamonds in terms of value are mined by this company. The Venice mine accounts for 10% of De Beers.
Quarry “Venice” is planned to leave in 2021, until 2045 the company is going to mine stones underground. However, geological surveys are underway in South Africa – it is expected that time for exhaustion of reserves of Venice will be found new places for booty.
8th place: V.P. Mushroom (Russia, Arkhangelsk region)
In the Mezen district of the Arkhangelsk region lies another large diamond pipe. There, 130 kilometers northeast from Arkhangelsk, not far from the sea, there is a deposit named after the Mushroom, or Verkhotinsky. Vladimir Pavlovich Mushroom – a man in whose honor the place was named was the chief geologist of the Arkhangelsk mining enterprise. ”
A kimberlite pipe was found lying in this place in 1996 year. The pipe is single, but its reserves are large – estimated at 98 million carats. The diameter of the tube is 1.6 km. Mine diamonds here started recently – in 2013. Production may continue for a long time – in an open way for 16 years to a depth of 540 m, then underground.
Two companies fought for the field – Canadian Archangel Diamond Corporation, owned by De Beers, and Russian Arkhangelskgeoldobycha owned by Lukoil. In 1994, they created a joint company “Diamond Coast” – the proportion of Canadians in it was 40%. Canadians had to invest in exploration and development deposits to access it. However after canadian the company stopped its investments and accused the Russian side of default Canadians’ claims for damages in neither one court were not satisfied.
9th place: Orapa (Botswana)
Another Botswana diamond mine – Orapa – takes first place in the world by area. However, the reserves of stones in it are less than in Jwaneng. The deposit is formed by two kimberlite pipes, which come together on the surface. Mined diamonds open way.
Around the mine there was a city, which is also called Orapa. The city is surrounded by a fence, they are allowed inside only by passes. The population is about 9.5 thousand, of which directly 3100 people work in the mine. The city has its own airport, 100-bed hospital, a school for working children. All this financed by Debswan.
Orapa (the name translates as “resting place for lions”) – one of Botswana’s oldest mines, which has been under development since 1971 of the year. Since 2006, when 17.3 million were mined from the field carats of diamonds, production declined, and soon the reserves will be exhausted. However, the remaining 85.7 million carats allow consider the field one of the largest in the world so far.
Attention! This rating is subjective, not advertising and does not serve as a guide to the purchase. Before the purchase consultation with a specialist is necessary.