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The Nobel Prize is one of the most prestigious international awards, it is awarded every year to those who have achieved outstanding achievements in the field of physics, chemistry, medicine, literature, or contributed to the strengthening of world peace. Award established Swedish chemist and wealthy entrepreneur Alfred Nobel after death, all his property is owned by him fund. The first award ceremony took place in 1901, and since then the total number chosen by the Nobel Commission Laureates amounted to more than 900 people. Each winner receives diploma, gold medal and a large sum of money. At the beginning of the XX century the size of the latter was 150 thousand SEK, by 2019 the prize money has grown to eight million SEK, which is equivalent to 1.1 million dollars. According to statistical data, the average age of those who are honored to receive this the award is 55 years old. However were in the history of the nobel prize and fairly young laureates.
Youngest Nobel Laureates in History
|Nomination||a place||Laureate||Laureate age|
|Youngest Nobel Laureates in History||1||Rudyard Kipling||42 years|
|2||Konstantin Novosyolov||36 years|
|3||Frederic Joliot-Curie||35 YEARS|
|4||Mayrid Corrigan||32 years|
|5||Rudolph Mossbauer||32 YEARS|
|6||Frederick Bunting||32 YEARS|
|7||Li Zhengdao||31 YEARS|
|8||Carl Anderson||31 YEARS|
|9||Paul Dirac||31 YEARS|
|10||Werner Heisenberg||31 YEARS|
|11||William Lawrence Bragg||25 YEARS|
|12||Malala Yusufzai||17 YEARS|
Prominent English writer and poet of the XIX-XX centuries Rudyard Kipling became the youngest writer in history in 1907, received the Nobel Prize. At that time, his age was 42 years old, and he already managed to write four novels, and 16 volumes stories. Kipling published his first works during stay in India, he later traveled a lot in Asia and the USA. It was the period of creativity in the states that became the most successful in his career. Meet the American children’s writer Mary Elizabeth Mapes Dodge led Kipling to the idea of creating a plot whose action going on in the indian jungle. So the famous cycle appeared of stories “The Jungle Book”, a huge success in life author and subsequently received more than one film adaptation. Nobel the award was awarded to the writer for vivid imagination, outstanding narrative talent and maturity of ideas. In addition, creativity Kipling was honored with a number of other honorary awards, including Gold Medal of the Royal Literary Society.
Physicist Konstantin Novoselov is from Nizhny Tagil Sverdlovsk region. He received his specialization “nanoelectronics”, was engaged in research at the Russian Academy Sciences, worked for some time in the Netherlands, then moved to Great Britain, where he held the position of researcher University of Manchester. Novoselov’s most important contribution to science was his research and experimental work with graphene, which he led along with his compatriot Andrei Game. Behind this is in 2010, at the age of 36, he was awarded the Nobel Prizes in Physics. Graphene, being extremely thin but durable carbon material and having a number of other valuable properties, opens broad prospects in the field of nanoelectronics and medicine, he also can be used to create innovative cleaning systems water. A year after receiving the award, Konstantin Novosyolov became member of the Royal Society of London. At the moment about two hundred belong to the authorship of the Russian-British physicist published scientific articles.
Jean Frederic Joliot was born and raised in the capital of France, where he studied at the Higher School of Physics and Applied Chemistry. Upon graduation engineer, however, decided to focus on the field fundamental research. Frederick first held Assistant position at Marie Curie at the Radium Institute of Paris University, later became a research fellow at the institute. He led research work in collaboration with Irene Curie, daughter Marie Curie. Later, Irene became his wife and together they continued their scientific research in the field of radioactive chemical properties substances. After the couple opened up the possibility of creating artificial radioactivity by synthesizing the necessary elements, they were awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. On the that moment to Frederic Joliot-Curie (he, like his wife, took a double last name) was 35 years old. During World War II, the scientist joined the French Resistance Movement, and rendered assistance by providing fighters communications equipment and explosives materials. After the liberation of Paris, Frederic Joliot-Curie took office Director of the National Center for Scientific Research.
Irish activist Meyrid Corrigan is known for her struggle for peace and justice through non-violent means. IN As a child, she received a Catholic education, from teenage age she worked as a secretary, while simultaneously volunteering activities in charitable organizations. Most on Corrigan’s life position was influenced by the death of her three nephews who died during a street shootout between English soldiers and the militant of the Irish Republican Army. Soon after, the activist joined forces with her friend Betty Williams, organized in Belfast, a protest march against violence in Northern Ireland. This demonstration was attended by both Protestants and Catholics alike. Next stage of her peacekeeping activity was the creation of the organization “Community of Peaceful People”, subsequently contributed to the settlement of ethnopolitical Conflict in Northern Ireland. For this, 32-year-old Meyrid Corrigan along with other co-founders of the community was awarded in 1976 the year of the Nobel Peace Prize. During her subsequent work, she visited more than 25 countries around the world, talking with prominent political and religious leaders.
German experimental physicist Rudolf Ludwig Mossbauer received Education at the Munich Technical University. Have worked a teacher at the Planck Institute, after moving to the United States professor at the California Institute of Technology. Exactly there in collaboration with the American scientist Robert Hofstedter he conducted research in nuclear physics and gamma spectroscopy. He discovered the effect of nuclear fluorescence gamma resonance without recoil of the nucleus, which subsequently received name “Mossbauer effect.” For his scientific work, he received two prestigious awards, and after experimental confirmation his discovery in 1961 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for physics. At that time, Mossbauer was 32 years old. His best practices became the basis for a number of highly sensitive methods measurements used in geology, archeology, medicine, metallurgy and many other fields of science and technology. Since the 1970s Rudolf Mossbauer took part in the study of solar neutrino, he later headed the French Laue Langevin Institute. Now the scientist is an honorary professor at thirteen universities, continuing teaching and research.
Canadian doctor and physiologist Frederick Bunting became the youngest Nobel laureate in medicine, having received it in a 32-year-old age for discovery of insulin. Curious that this most important a scientific breakthrough might not have taken place, because initially Bunting planned to get a theological education. However at the university Toronto, he changed his mind in time and began to study medicine. For some time he worked as a practicing surgeon, then switched to laboratory research, interested in finding means for combating diabetes. As a result, he and his assistant Charles Best managed to isolate the hormone insulin from the pancreas glands of dogs. This discovery was the first step towards mass synthetic insulin production, saving lives millions of people with diabetes. It’s worth noting that Bunting doesn’t wanted to use his work for commercial purposes and sold a patent to the University of Toronto for just one dollar. Merits of a Medic in addition to the Nobel Prize, were awarded the Order of the British empire, and his birthday on November 14 became World diabetes day.
Chinese-American physicist educated at home in the National Southwest United University, then continued his studies at the University of Chicago, and under the leadership of the famous Italian physicist Enrico Fermi, author The world’s first nuclear reactor, received a doctorate. IN the following years, Zhengdao, going to Columbia University, held the post of deputy professor. And at the age of 29 became the youngest professor in university history. Nobel he received the prize in the field of physics two years later (in 1957), for his achievements in the study of the laws of parity, opening up new prospects for scientific research of elementary particles. how some physicists say Zhengdao allowed a step get closer to creating a unified physical and mathematical theory, so called the “theory of everything.”
US physicist and experimenter Carl Anderson holds a degree bachelor’s and then Ph.D. in California Institute of Technology. Led by an outstanding physicist Robert Andrews Millikan he took up space research rays. In the course of his work, Anderson discovered traces of a particle with mass equivalent to the mass of the electron, but having, in contrast to it not a negative, but a positive electric charge. The scientist managed confirm your discovery experimentally by forming with irradiation with gamma rays electron-positron pairs. In 1936, when Carl Anderson was 31 years old, he and his colleague Victor Hess was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics. In the same year he made another important discovery – discovered existence unstable subatomic particle called muon.
English scientist Paul Dirac gained fame as the main way thanks to work on the quantum theory of gravity and electrodynamics. He began his scientific career by studying at University of Bristol, where he studied electrical engineering, as well as applied mathematics. In the future, Dirac entered graduate school Cambridge University, and since 1926 he was accepted into the scientific Council of the College of St. John. Authorship of the scientist equation subsequently named after him. This equation serves to explain the interaction of the electromagnetic field and free electrons and the appearance of an electron-positron pair. For his the work of Paul Dirac, who was then 31 years old, was honored Nobel Prize in Physics.
The German theoretical physicist Werner Heisenberg can confidence to be called one of the main pioneers in the field quantum mechanics. He studied at the University of Munich and defended a doctoral dissertation on the topic of quantum theory at only 22 years old. Then the budding young man was invited to work in University of Gottingen, where he became an assistant to Max Bourne. IN 1927, he became professor of theoretical physics University of Leipzig doing parallel science activity. Heisenberg played a leading role in the development of quantum-mechanical theory, for which he was awarded the Nobel physics award. At that time, the age of the young scientist was 31 years. In addition to creating the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, he made an invaluable contribution to the study of ferromagnetism, subatomic particles and many other physical phenomena. After the second world war Acting as Director of the Institute, Max Planck in Germany, a working group on nuclear physics.
William Lawrence Bragg
Young Australian scientist William Lawrence Bragg received Nobel Prize in Physics at the age of 25, in conjunction with his father William Henry Bragg. From an early age he showed a keen interest in science, as evidenced by the fact that Bragg is already at the age of fourteen he managed to enter the University of Adelaide, where studied mathematics and physics. After moving with his family to Britain, he continued his studies and graduated from Trinity College Cambridge University. Conducting scientific work, Lawrence Bragg with crystals were examined by his father through an X-ray spectrometer and discovered the law of x-ray diffraction, allowing determine the position of the crystal atoms. In 1915, their merits were awarded the Nobel Prize, and four years later Bragg took Professor of Physics at Victorian University Manchester.
Pakistani girl gained fame at the age of 11, after how she started blogging for the BBC, where she spoke in detail about life in the Swat region captured by Taliban supporters. Malala advocated for children’s rights and access to education for women Pakistan. After the advance of government troops and the liberation In 2009, the province from the Taliban, she continued her activities. Three years later, on the school bus, in which Malala was traveling with other children were attacked: gunmen shot the girl in the head, two other children also suffered. Being delivered to military hospital, she lay in a coma for a while, after how her condition improved and allowed transportation, Malalu transported by plane to Birmingham. Minister of Pakistan in absentia awarded the young activist with the Star of the Order of Courage, and the British journalist Christina Lamb volunteered to help the girl with writing autobiographical book. Next Year Biography overshadowed by the statement of representatives of the Taliban case they repeat the assassination attempt, but nevertheless, Malala did not scared of threats and did not stop fighting against oppression. IN In 2013, she was awarded two awards: the Anna Politkovskaya Prize and Sakharov Prize. In 2014, seventeen-year-old Malala Yusufzai awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in conjunction with the Indian Kailash Satyartha activist, thus becoming the youngest Nobel laureate in history.
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