12 most famous paintings of the Tretyakov galleries

Review of the best according to the editors. About the selection criteria. The the material is subjective, is not advertising and is not serves as a guide to the purchase. Before purchase is needed consultation with a specialist.

The Tretyakov Gallery is rightfully considered one of the largest museums of Russian fine art. In its halls are represented more than 180,000 exhibits and the collection is constantly updated. To to see everything personally, it will take at least a few days, but for detailed study and life will not be enough. What you should pay special attention in the variety of magnificent paintings? We have chosen for you a small route, including some of the most significant work, stored in the Tretyakov Gallery.

Masterpieces of Russian painting: top 12 most famous paintings Tretyakov Gallery

Nomination a place Composition rating
Overview of the most famous paintings of the Tretyakov Gallery 1 “The phenomenon of the messiah” , AND .А. Ivanov 5.0
2 “Princess Tarakanova” , К.Д. Flavitsky 4.9
3 “Unequal marriage” , IN .В. Pukirev 4.8
4 “Rest hunters” , В.Г. Perov 4.8
5 “The Rooks Have Arrived” , А.К. Savrasov 4.7
6 “Unknown”, I.N. Kramskoy 4.7
7 “Morning in a pine forest” , AND .И. Shishkin 4.7
8 “Heroes” , В.М. Vasnetsov 4.6
9 “The Apotheosis of War” , В.В. Vereshchagin 4.5
10 “Boyar Morozova” , В.И. Surikov 4.5
11 “Morning of the Archery Execution” , В.И. Surikov 4.5
12 “Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on November 16, 1581”, I.E. Repin 4.5

“The phenomenon of the messiah” , А.А. Ivanov

Rating: 5.0

The Appearance of the Messiah,

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall number 10

Almost the entire room is dedicated to Alexander’s painting alone. Ivanova – a huge canvas occupies almost the entire wall. On the remaining space contains numerous sketches, sketches, studies, of which over 20 long years of creating the picture a lot has accumulated. On the canvas depicts Jesus going to people, surrounded by his future Apostles – Peter, Andrew, John, Nathanael, etc.

Ivanov wrote his colossal canvas while in Italy. Then not without adventure transported him to his homeland, to Russia. But there the picture did not succeed: instead of triumph, a magnificent plot a strange disappointment awaited. Also found especially meticulous viewers who criticized the picture for flaws (for example, the old man depicted on the far left is dressed in a light bandage, and in reflection it is red).

Soon after the presentation of the canvas, the author suddenly died of cholera. After his death, acquired a picture the Russian emperor, giving instructions to build specifically for “Apparitions of the Messiah” is a separate pavilion in the Rumyantsev Museum, and in 1920, the painting got into the Tretyakov Gallery, where, by the way, for her a separate room was specially attached.

“Princess Tarakanova” , К.Д. Flavitsky

Rating: 4.9

Princess Tarakanova

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 16

On the right in the direction of the hall is the famous painting Konstantin Flavitsky, which depicts the legendary the impostor – Princess Tarakanova. History of its origin is covered the fog. In general, the allegedly illegitimate Tarakanovs were called children of Empress Elizabeth Petrovna.

Only in the empire managed to crush the rebellion of one of these impostors – Emelyana Pugacheva, as it appeared beauty-adventurer, who initially called herself Mademoiselle Frank, then Madame Tremuil, and later became Elizabeth of Vladimir – daughter of the empress and her favorite Razumovsky.

Catherine II instructed to engage in impostor Count Orlov, who pretending to be in love, he achieved the reciprocity of the beauty, and then kidnapped her under the pretext of a secret wedding on a ship. On it the impostor was taken to confinement: after the arrest, Tarakanov was sent to the Peter and Paul Fortress.

Petersburg has experienced several major floods, one of which was the flood of 1777, when the water in the Neva rose as much as 3 meters above normal levels. It is believed that it was then that the prisoner also died, imprisoned in one of the cameras. It was this tragic moment that conveyed so vividly and creepy artist on his canvas. The official version of the death of Princess Tarakanova is death from consumption.

“Unequal marriage” , В.В. Pukirev

Rating: 4.8


Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 16

To the left in the same room as the previous canvas is touching picture of Vasily Pukirev. Painted this picture artist, while still a student of the capital’s school of painting, sculpture and architecture. It was for this work that he received the title of professor. Иthis despite the fact that the canvas is neither a battle scene nor large-scale historical plot. But how much tragedy, cruel and subtle irony, hidden meaning in this picture.

It was written at a time when the issue of disenfranchised feminine position, unequal marriages when homelessness by force married, became especially acute for Russia. At the exhibition, the canvas immediately made a huge impression on his contemporaries.

At first glance, a modest sketch is a wedding in a small to the church, but how masterfully the gamut of feelings is conveyed. Tragic a story in a frozen frame: a young bride with tears in her eyes, her the titled groom – already an old man – is unhappy with her public tears. To the left of the groom and the priest are two figures: old women, clothed in wedding dresses and written in a slightly transparent form. One of the leading art critics of the gallery suggested that this may be the shadow of the past wives of an old man who killed them with his cruelty.

In the background, in the best man depicted behind the bride, many saw the artist himself: it was believed that the canvas was partly autobiographical, because his allegedly failed bride was given for the prince. In 2002, confirmation of this version was received, when the Tretyakov Gallery acquired a pencil drawing in 1907 Sukhov’s work with the caption: “Praskovya Matveevna Varentsova, with whom 44 years ago, artist V.V. Pukirev painted his famous painting “Unequal marriage”. Ms. Varentsova lives in Moscow, in Mazurinskaya almshouse. ”

“Rest hunters” , В.Г. Perov

Rating: 4.8

Hunters on a halt

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 17

Perov wrote at one time a series of works on hunting subjects, but this one became the most famous. The artist and himself was an avid hunter, and in the characters of the paintings, many without difficulty recognized his own friends. Most critics and just lovers of good painting admired Perov’s work, comparing “Rest” with Turgenev’s hunting stories. And some scolded artist for simulated theatricality of the plot and unnaturalness characters.

In his work, Perov applied an interesting technique: a special color he emphasized the faces and hands of the characters, as if “highlighting” them. Thus, he managed to give facial expressions and gestures to the main characters paintings are particularly lively. The whole composition is presented on the canvas: seasoned hunter (man on the left) tells a fictional story a young hunter who sits on the far right and seems to sincerely believes in her. But the man in the center (also an experienced hunter) is set up quite skeptical and just smirks.

It is noteworthy that in the Soviet Union Perov’s picture “Hunters on halt “enjoyed quite wildly popularity. Her reproductions hung wherever possible. And if someone was an avid hunter, he was certainly handed as a gift just this picture.

“The Rooks Have Arrived” , А.К. Savrasov

Rating: 4.7


Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 18

The most famous canvas of the famous Russian landscape painter. It would seem that nothing special is shown in the picture, but it is she became truly cult and was even printed in school textbooks. On the at first glance, the landscape is rather plain: rickety huts, bare tree branches with black birds sitting on them. Besides, it was written in a very difficult period for the artist: together with his family kicked him out of the government apartment, and in the midst of the training years (at the art school they decided that Savrasov did not have enough students).

The artist went to the Volga, then to Kostroma and Nizhny Novgorod, where he made many magnificent sketches. Work on the landscape painter began “rooks” when he arrived in Yaroslavl, and the final the vision of the canvas developed after Savrasov found the perfect view – Church of the Ascension of Christ in the village of Molvitino.

For the first time the picture was presented at the exhibition of the Wanderers and somehow quietly turned into a classic lyrical model landscape. Ivan Kramskoy very accurately described the painting “Rooks” flew “:” on all other paintings there is water, trees, even air, and the soul is only in the Rooks … “.

“Unknown”, I.N. Kramskoy

Rating: 4.7


Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 20

Hardly any of the most scandalous paintings in the history of art. A portrait of an unknown lady painted by Kramsky was presented public at the March 1883 exhibition. Scandalousness of this canvases in the fact that it is written is completely not in the spirit of partnership artists: first, the lady was indecently luxuriously dressed (like “Swedish” gloves, coat and clutch made of expensive cloth, fashionable takes), secondly, ladies from high society could not move independently (as represented in the picture) – it was considered the height of indecency.

Seeing the picture, the Tretyakov for some reason refused to purchase it for galleries, and the canvas roamed for a long time among different owners, bringing them according to legend, misfortune. The main secret, however, is still considered the personality depicted in the painting is a stranger. Everyone saw her something familiar, but no one knew who this one was woman. According to one version, this is a commoner Matrena Savvishna, which Count Bestuzhev fell in love with and married her, and then, disappointed, threw it. She died on the way back to the service of mistress.

The most likely is considered the version that in the picture depicts Georgian Princess Varvara Turkestanova, whose portrait Kramskoy saw on a cameo and, impressed by beauty and history the fate of the girl, depicted her on the canvas. The maid of honor Maria Fedorovna (widows of Paul I) stood out for beauty and intelligence. She immediately conquered the heart of Emperor Alexander I. But a secret connection brought her only misfortune: trying to find solace in the love of another, she went out married, gave birth to a child, but, unable to bear the shame, ended with by myself.

“Morning in a pine forest” , И.И. Shishkin

Rating: 4.7

Утро в сосновом лесу

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall number 25

What names did not give this picture: and “Morning in a pine Bor “and” Bears in a pine forest “and just” Bears “. Last the name, apparently, was assigned to the picture after For a long time, the image of Shishkinsky was printed on Soviet sweets cubs. It is noteworthy that Shishkin bears on this canvas and didn’t write: it is believed that two people worked on the painting at once artists. And the forest inhabitants were painted by Shishkin’s friend – Konstantin Savitsky.

There are versions of the disappearance of Savitsky’s signature from the canvas several. According to one of them, he removed it with his own hand, thereby renouncing authorship in favor of a friend. On the other hand, the signature is erased Tretyakov immediately after acquiring a job. One way or another, but The landscape depicted on the canvas is excellent. Rumor has it that for work on his “forest paintings” the artist for several months he moved to a hut and lived in the Bryansk forests. And add the living characters proposed to Shishkin by his wife, although in the original variant planned moose or wild boars.

“Heroes” , В.М. Vasnetsov

Rating: 4.6

The Heroes

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 26

One of the most famous paintings by Viktor Vasnetsov is actually became a symbol of Russian heroism and a living memory of those times. Famous heroes of ancient Russian epics – brave fellows, ready in any minute to face imminent danger. On the canvas they depicted all together and many mistakenly believe that the three heroes and drove around the proud three. In fact, a similar meeting could happen only on the canvas of the artist.

Dobrynya Nikitich, Ilya Muromets and Alyosha Popovich actually lived in different times: when Ilya was of the same age as on the canvas, Dobrynya was a deep old man, but Alyosha was a child at all. But for myself The author of the picture, three heroes became a striking symbol. He invested in work a lot of strength, his soul and the whole 20 years of his life.

A huge canvas almost 3×4.5 meters in size final completion in 1898 everywhere followed the family artist: from the capital to Kiev or to the cottage during the summer recreation. And how much time was spent creating heroic images! They are truly collective. For numerous studies for Relatives, friends and even simple ones posed for Vasnetsov’s canvas peasants. And in the fields near the stables of the famous philanthropist Savva Mamontov repeatedly led horses specifically for posing to the artist.

“The Apotheosis of War” , В.В. Vereshchagin

Rating: 4.5

The Apotheosis of War

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 27

Perhaps the most unusual detail of this picture can be considered the inscription on her frame: “Dedicated to all the great conquerors – past, present and future. “It was believed that all the work Vereshchagin were, so to speak, reporting: that is, an artist depicted on his canvases only what he saw firsthand, participating in royal military campaigns. “The Apotheosis of War” is an exception. Only here he depicted the events of more old, also having historical basis, but rather symbolic.

According to one version, Vereshchagin connected the painting with Tamerlan, whose warriors often left similar pyramids of skulls. Supposedly once women of Damascus and Baghdad turned to the great commander, complaining about unfaithful husbands. Then Timur ordered every warrior to bring one traitor from one of the 200,000th army. Аthen put all the heads into the pyramids.

According to another version, the artist created the canvas under the impression from the story of how once the ruler of Kashgar beheaded European traveler and ordered his head to be laid on the top of the pyramid, which was composed of the heads of local executed. At that while the artist was in Turkestan, where he participated in Russian campaigns and plenty seen enough of death.

It was in Turkestan that a whole series was created (of the same name) paintings, where Vereshchagin depicted not only military battles, but also life residents of Central Asia. “The Apotheosis of War” was the brightest work that creative period of the artist. On the canvas depicts the whole a mountain of skulls on the background of a red-hot, scorched steppe, destruction and devastation. Around the skulls, only the crows curl, and the bones themselves speckled with sabers and arrows. This is even more acute emphasizes the main creepy idea of ​​the picture: victims in any war absolutely pointless.

“Boyar Morozova” , В.И. Surikov

Rating: 4.5

Boyar Morozova

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 28

In one of the last halls of the Tretyakov Gallery is located, perhaps one of her most important and most significant paintings – Surikovskaya “Boyar Morozova”. The plot is based on a real historical fact and his character is also real: Theodosius Morozov – the close king of Alexei Mikhailovich was the supreme noblewoman. Widowed at 30, she managed to maintain her power and wealth. Вthe period of advancement of church reforms by Patriarch Nikon refused accept them. The Old Believer followed Protopope Habakkuk and took a secret monastic tonsure. For their religious beliefs she paid.

On a huge canvas measuring 3.04×5.87 meters tragic moment – the noblewoman is being taken across the metropolitan area to the place conclusions. In a sign that her faith has not broken, Theodosius Morozova raised two fingers. If you look closely, you can to see how a beggar beggar sitting in the snow, in solidarity also lifts two fingers up.

The artist himself once remembered so embodied on canvas image: “Once I saw a crow in the snow. A crow is sitting in the snow and a wing one set aside. Black stain in the snow sits. So this spot I could not forget for many years. Then he wrote “Boyar Morozova.” According to history, in November 1674, the old-believer was sent to prison in the monastery land prison, where died a year and a half later.

“Morning of the Archery Execution” , В.И. Суриков

Rating: 4.5

Morning of the Archery Execution

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 28

Surikov’s second no less epic canvas is in the same the hall. “The Morning of the Archery Execution” is another historical plot, found embodiment in the artist’s painting. In 1698 Streletsky regiments led by Princess Sophia rebelled against unbearable military hardships and defeated. One of the possible the reasons for the rebellion by historians is also considered the desire of shooters to erect to the throne, Princess Sophia, who at that moment was regent at minors Petra and Ivan.

Streletsky riot was brutally suppressed: about 1000 people executed, almost 200 of them – right under the windows of the cell of the princess herself, exiled to the Novodevichy Convent. Notably that families archers rebelled against the king were banished from the capital giving them work or giving alms (actually families were doomed to starvation).

On a canvas of impressive size (~ 2.2×3.8 m), the artist depicted the most tragic moment: not the execution of the rebels themselves, but their farewell with relatives before death. There is a version that originally on the picture, nevertheless, depicted executed archers. But once the artist’s servant, having entered the workshop and seeing the painting, lost feelings. Surikov, who did not want to shock the audience, decided to introduce then sketch of change.

It is noteworthy that the historical the buildings are very close: St. Basil’s Cathedral and the Kremlin the wall is at a much greater distance from each other than it is presented on the canvas.

“Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan on November 16, 1581”, I.E. Repin

Rating: 4.5

Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan

Location in the Tretyakov Gallery: Hall No. 30

An impressive canvas by a Russian painter depicts a tragic episode, the authenticity of which many historians put under doubt. Nevertheless, there is still a legend that John Terrible in a fit of intense anger killed his son, striking with a rod in temple. Moreover, anger was caused by the fact that the sovereign suspected Prince in treason, or the fact that his wife dared to appear in the male half of the tower with his head uncovered.

The picture depicts the moment already committed evil: distraught from perfect father holds in his arms a dying son, on whose face pacification froze. The artist himself said that the look of his king very scared, so he always hid the picture or turned it away to the wall, but something pulled him to the canvas, and he continued to work as obsessed. The emotions reflected on the face of Ivan the Terrible, really, seem to border on insanity.

By the way, the picture itself survived a real assassination attempt. In 1913 one of the visitors committed an act of vandalism: with a scream “Enough blood!” One of the gallery visitors rushed onto the canvas, by painting the canvas with a knife. Damaged canvas saved a few restorers and the artist himself, in a hurry, rushed from the dacha from Finland.

Attention! This rating is subjective, not advertising and does not serve as a guide to the purchase. Before the purchase consultation with a specialist is necessary.

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