Review of the best according to the editors. About the selection criteria. The the material is subjective, is not advertising and is not serves as a guide to the purchase. Before purchase is needed consultation with a specialist.
The territory of Russia is rich in water resources of any type, and the number of different rivers and huge rivers simply can not be counted. IN overall, the figure reaches 2.5 million and most water bodies do not They boast impressive size. But there are those who can boldly compete with world giants, impressing their power, beauty and, of course, size. Your attention a dozen the longest rivers of Russia.
Water giants of Russia: top 10 longest rivers
|Overview of the longest rivers of Russia||10||Ural||2428 KM.|
|6||Lower Tunguska||2990 KM.|
Length: 2,428 km
Opens our ten one of the largest rivers in Russia. First mentions of this fresh water reservoir appeared in the 5th century: the ancient Greek historian Herodotus mentioned him in his “History” under the name of Lycos. Since the 10th century, the mention of the Urals under various names found in many travel notes. Ural originates in the mountains of the same name, moving south from the slopes of the Round Hill to the Caspian Sea.
Annual rainfall over the entire length of this long rivers do not exceed 500 mm, their predominant part is in the form of snow. We can say that the humidification in the river basin is too weak, and, nevertheless, fluctuations in water level in the Urals are quite significant, but in during the spring flood, the water level rises by 10 m.
Unfortunately, not far from the river coast at a significant the length of the reservoir operates a lot of industrial facilities, adversely affecting the state of water: especially “distinguished” by the degree of pollution 2 tributaries of the Urals – the Ilek River and blya. water content of zinc and copper exceeds the permissible norm 100 times.
Length: 2,450 km
The longest tributary of the Irtysh, the Ishim River is located in the Asian parts of the country, and also passes through the territory of Kazakhstan. By legend, the reservoir received its name on behalf of the Tatar Khan – son of Kuchim who drowned in him. There is an alternative version: in translated from Tatar “ishmak” means “destructive.” And this not far from the truth, because, despite the relatively modest size, Ishim is capable of causing significant damage to the shores folded from loose breed.
The river originates in the mountains, feeds mainly on snow (more than 80% of the water flow). The high water in Ishim is short (no more than 40 days), the water level in this period rises to 8-10 m. To in the last decade of October, a steady ice cover lasting for 5 months.
Ishim is considered an important waterway for the Tyumen and Omsk regions of Russia, as well as neighboring Kazakhstan. significant portion the river basin is plowed for sowing grain and vegetable crops, and the Ishim floodplain is a valuable pasture. On the river there are several large settlements (including the capital of Kazakhstan) and numerous villages. Ishim is one of the most important sources of water supply for nearby areas: the more acute the problem of water scarcity and its significant pollution.
Length: 2650 km
Representative of the Far East in our ranking and the longest tributary of the Lena River. It flows through the territory of Siberia, Krasnoyarsk region and completes its “path” in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In translation from the Yakut language, the name means “swamp”, which is exactly characterizes the river in its lower reaches.
The discovery of the reservoir occurred only in the 17th century, when in place the present city of Vilyuisk formed the Cossack winter hut. In the 18th century on the river the exiled participants of the Pugachevsky rebellion was built the city of Olensk, renamed in 1821 to its current name. It was this city that became the place of exile for the Decembrist Muravyov-Apostol, Ukrainian poet Grabovsky and famous Russian revolutionary, writer, philosopher Chernyshevsky. By the way the latter spent 11 years of his life in the prison.
Vilyui is rich in valuable resources: it is the only river in Lena basin, which is used in hydropower for more than half a century. By the end of December, the river usually freezes: a fixed stratum ice lies on its surface for 7 months.
Length: 2,824 km
The river is located on a kind of natural border passing between northeastern China and the Far Eastern District Of Russia. Cupid flows for almost 3,000 km to the northwest Pacific Ocean, then flows into the Sea of Okhotsk. The long river is rich various vegetative zones, wildly filling a large part of its coast: there are mixed forests, meadow steppes, taiga, swamps and even the tundra.
Amur Wetlands – The Most Valuable Resource of a Pond: This A huge ecosystem is home to many species of flora and fauna. The river basin has become a haven for millions of migratory birds, 70 species of mammals and about 5000 species of plants. Meet here even rare animals. Among them are the Amur tiger and the Far Eastern Leopard – the most iconic animals of the region.
This is another representative of the Asian part of the country and one of the largest rivers of the world. Amur basin is located in a moderate climatic zone. Monsoons are considered a characteristic feature of the river: precipitation prevails in the summer, mitigating continental climate. Cupid is known for its long flood lasting up to six months. As a result, floods are not uncommon. Most extreme happened in the summer of 2013. Highest water level in that period exceeded the historical maximum by 2 meters.
Length: 2,990 km
The right tributary of one of the longest and largest rivers in Russia Located in the Asian part of the country. Lower Tunguska basin may boast a colossal number of lakes – more than 17,000, their total the area reaches 1817 km2. Characteristic of the river significant seasonal fluctuations in water level: during flood the level sometimes rises to 5-6 m, at which time 3/4 passes annual runoff of water. June is considered the most watery.
In 1911, a project was developed to connect the Nizhnyaya River Tunguska and Lena in the area of the village of Kirensk (current Irkutsk region). In that area, the distance between the water bodies is not exceeded 15 km, only their flow rate was different. Project was never implemented due to inappropriate: it was considered too expensive and complicated.
Today, the issue of construction in basin of the Lower Tunguska Evenki hydroelectric station, which in the case of will become the largest hydropower plant in the country for the entire history and one of the largest in the world.
Interesting fact. Russian writer Shishkov in his novel “Gloom-river” as a prototype of a reservoir could use exactly Lower Tunguska: under this name it is mentioned in the ancient Siberian song.
Length: 3,487 km
The mighty river of Siberia and the natural border between its eastern and western part. Yenisei is calm throughout its course. He moves mainly on flat terrain, passing through the taiga. The coast its asymmetrical: the right one rises five times over the left. Nutrition the rivers are 50% snowy, the rest is given by heavy rains. Yenisei passes through all of Siberia, “meeting” on its way each of climatic zones of this region.
The highlight of the reservoir can be considered a variety of coastal fauna, and represented by radically different species. For example, on you can see both polar bears and the Yenisei camels.
The annual water withdrawal from the Yenisei is quite large – more than 3,500 million. m3, despite the fact that the return in the form of wastewater (large part of which does not pass cleaning at all) is only 2800 million m3. It doesn’t affect quality the composition of water, turning it into unsuitable not only for drinking, but also for household needs. For example, below Krasnoyarsk was marked unfavorable radiation background.
Length: 3,530 km
Fourth place in our rating and the longest river in Europe. Its source is in the Tver region. Volga boasts a truly colossal pool covering 2/3 of the European part countries (more than 1.36 million km2). Along the Volga basin there are many settlements and 11 major cities Russia (including Moscow).
A significant part of the river bed runs along the border with Kazakhstan, and then flows into the Caspian Sea. And although the Volga can not be called the longest in the country, it is considered one of her characters: the river is mentioned in many works of art both Russian and foreign authors are found in paintings and etc.
Interesting fact. Many experts are still skeptical refer to the fact that the Volga is called the river. The fact is that the Kama tributary flows into it, the length of which is up to the confluence with the Volga more than the length of the Volga itself to the point of confluence. Therefore, by Volga rules should be called a tributary.
Length: 3,660 km
Famous West Siberian pond, one of the most aquifers Russia, the largest in area in the country and in fourth place the same indicator in the world. The result of the confluence of the Katun and Biy rivers. For The Ob is characterized by a significant change in its level of fullness by throughout the year, since the basis of its nutrition is meltwater, in large quantities formed in the spring.
Hydropower reserves of the river basin are considered colossal – 250 billion kW / h, but currently among functioning hydropower plants – only Novosibirsk. Volga is rich in fish, in including fishing: such are 35 of the 50 living here species. The most valuable among them are sterlet, sturgeon, whitefish, pike, burbot, etc. In addition, 430 species grow along the river basin plants, 260 species of birds live.
The climate of the Volga basin changes significantly as advance from north to south. In the northern regions observed temperate climate: winters are cold and snowy, and summers are warm, with an abundance of rainfall. In the southern regions, winter is milder, but summer is very hot with minimum rainfall.
Length: 4,212 km
The sources of the Irtysh are lost somewhere on the Sino-Mongolian border, and the upper part of its basin is located in the Altai Mountains. By Russian territory, the river flows mainly in a wide the valley. The mountain part of the Irtysh feeds mainly on melt glacial waters. The lower reaches are fed by rainwater, and partly – thawed. Groundwater also plays a significant role.
For a long time the reservoir is used as one of the most important water highways connecting the south and north of Siberia with each other Kazakhstan. Its basin has 11 natural territories federal status with protected status (including – 2 state nature reserve). Located on the river banks several large cities: Omsk, Ust-Kamenogorsk, Tobolsk and etc.
In length, the Irtysh is considered the largest tributary of the Ob, and the water Ob-Irtysh system – one of the longest on the planet – 5410 km. The water in the river is fresh, soft, and, unfortunately, in some areas heavily soiled. One of the most affected is considered plot in the area of the city of Semey, from the coastal rivers of which in the Irtysh tons of household waste merge, as well as a section from the village of Tatarka to Cherlak village, contaminated with oil products.
Length: 4,260 km
The longest river in Russia and one of the largest on the planet. Lena originates at Lake Baikal, being formed by many streams and, slowly passing through a significant territory of the east of the country, it flows into Laptev sea. And, although this river is northern, it freezes in winter only a small part of it. Upper Lena has one feature: about 13% of the waters entering here are of underground origin. Near thirds of all the waters that fill the river are melt snow.
Part of the river basin boasts one natural feature: the famous Lensky pass along the coast poles – natural rock formations that actually form steep banks. In the area of the mouth, Lena forms a huge a delta with an area of about 45,000 km2 – the largest in the Arctic (one of the largest on the planet) and the most extensive part of the wild nature protected by law.
In addition, the river delta in spring is an important place for birds flying here for nesting and for migration, as well as substantial support for a rich fish population. Productive Lena wetlands have become a real home for swans, plovers, waders, snipe, terns, gulls and many birds of prey.
Attention! This rating is subjective, not advertising and does not serve as a guide to the purchase. Before the purchase consultation with a specialist is necessary.