Review of the best according to the editors. About the selection criteria. The the material is subjective, is not advertising and is not serves as a guide to the purchase. Before purchase is needed consultation with a specialist.
Gold is rightly considered one of the best tools for capital increase. For many years this precious metal symbolizes reliability: in gold equivalent world leading analysts advise companies and individuals keep 25% of the investment portfolio. Some of the countries hold the same view, some do not. In our rating hit states that remember that valuable metals highly liquid regardless of state guarantees and may boast of their impressive volume.
About the gold reserve
What is the essence of the gold and foreign exchange reserve? First of all, he is called provide national currency with due value equal to a certain amount of valuable metal. Buying or Selling gold, you can achieve the optimal rate of the country’s domestic currency on the world market. Gold and foreign exchange reserve – the real “pillow” security, rainy day stocks and the higher they are, the the level of the state economy will be more stable.
Before, the central banks of most countries relied on sale of gold, but over the past 10 years the situation has cardinally has changed: today they have become buyers. Moreover, the activity in the issue of buying gold in the global market is growing rapidly the pace. In 2017-2018, the volume of yellow acquired by countries metal rose by almost a third.
Gold and foreign exchange reserves leaders
In recent years, world debt has been growing steadily, stimulating central banks of many countries to cautious actions with valuable metals: most governments prefer to protect their own gold reserves and even increase them. The following are a dozen the most enterprising and thrifty states of the world.
|Nomination||a place||Country||gold reserves|
|Gold and foreign exchange reserves leaders||10||Netherlands||612.5 tons|
- Gold volumes: 612.5 tons
- International reserves: 68.2%
Since 2014, the Netherlands has initiated a repatriation process. a significant part of the gold and foreign exchange reserves from US vaults. A spokeswoman commented on this decision very simply, saying that it would be unreasonable to leave more than half in a foreign country own gold reserves, especially since the cold war period passed already many years ago. According to the Dutch government, this will help to distribute foreign exchange resources more in balance.
Not so long ago, the Central Bank of the Netherlands adopted a mixed According to many, the decision to transport the gold and foreign exchange reserves from capital to the suburbs, citing the need to reduce costs ensuring the security of valuable foreign exchange reserves. Similar actions seem pretty weird amid the recently concluded the repatriation of a significant portion of Dutch gold from American storages.
- Gold volumes: 618.2 tons
- International reserves: 5.5%
In recent years, there has been a clear downward trend. global economic growth. Countries with emerging economies. Among them was India. Her reserve the bank has one of the largest precious metal storage facilities in the world. True, the volumes of the “reserves” themselves so far do not allow it rise higher in the ranking of the richest gold countries.
The South Asian state is considered not only one of the leaders in world in terms of population, but also one of the leaders in the amount of precious metal consumed. India is unconditional the guarantor of global demand for gold.
True, starting in 2018, the demand for this metal among Indians gradually declining, not least due to the fall national currency of the country. Bank of Switzerland predicts and further weakening of the Indian rupee, linking this to high oil prices. The fact is that India is 100% dependent on imported crude oil: she is a net importer.
Interesting fact: the wedding and festival season taking place in India from October to December, is still significant event for the international gold market.
- Gold volumes: 765.2 tons
- International reserves: 2.5%
Among all the countries represented in the ranking, it is Japan the percentage of gold from total foreign exchange reserves is the smallest. Country has the 3rd most important economy in the world, and always maintains a “soft” position in relation to the gold and foreign exchange reserve and economic policies in relation to other countries.
Over the past few years, the country’s Central Bank has strictly adheres to a loyal offer program for holders precious metals: since 2016, interest rates on gold have been reduced to a record below zero, which led to an incredible increased demand for yellow metal not only in the country itself, but also Worldwide. By the way, the share of Japan in the total gold reserve the world over the past 15 years has increased rapidly, having reached a maximum of 5.2% in 2018.
- Gold volumes: 1,040 tons
- International reserves: 5.3%
Although it takes only 7th place in the rating of gold and currency giants place, the volume of its valuable reserves is enormous, given the amount population and modest territory of the state. Switzerland is leader in gold reserves per capita population.
During the Second World War, the state persistently maintained neutrality, pursuing a loyal policy towards all war veterans. As a result, the country has become a European center gold trading. In recent years, the “course” of Swiss Governments have changed slightly: the country is selling precious metals mainly to China and Hong Kong.
It is noteworthy that Switzerland to the storage of its own gold stocks is no less zealous than the leader of the rating – USA, perhaps even slightly paranoid. In case of an atomic explosion and of any other world disasters, the Federal Council of the country adopted the decision to build a bunker in the mountains, where to this day yellow precious metal is collected.
- Gold volumes: 1936.5 tons
- International reserves: 2.4%
“Celestial” is considered the undisputed leader of East Asia in the volume of available foreign exchange reserves, but in the world ranking reached only 6th place, which is not surprising, because in gold equivalent, the country stores only a small part of its huge foreign exchange reserves.
Official Chinese Gold Procurement Monthly Information It was first published just a few years ago – in 2009. It is noteworthy that almost the entire period of the Bretton Woods system (until 1976) in the country there was no gold stock. Since the 2000s, Chinese gold reserves have begun grow rapidly, reaching a peak by 2015, and today day decline is not observed.
In 2018-2019, China surprised many, showing very active interest in buying precious metals, starting a real “campaign” for buying valuable currency. It is noteworthy that with relatively average gold reserves, China is the largest gold producer in the world.
- Gold volumes: 2219.2 tons
- International reserves: 17.6%
The country occupies a leading position among the CIS member states: Russia undoubtedly dominates in terms of reserves national gold. Thanks to the mining of this metal, the country annually increases its precious reserves. By the level of gold mining Russia managed to come in second place in the world, losing to the championship only to China. The average increase in gold reserves every year increases by an average of 220 tons.
In 2017, the country bought 224 tons of valuable metal, seeking weaken the influence of the US dollar, which has become negative due to deteriorated relations with Western countries and After the accession of the Crimean Peninsula to Russia (year 2014). Unfortunately, to make this purchase, the country had to resort to extreme measures, selling a significant part American Treasuries.
Over the past 5 years, the largest buyer of Russian gold considered the central bank of the country. As of 2019, Russia was able to overtake China in the number of available foreign exchange reserves.
- Gold volumes: 2436 tons
- International reserves: 63.9%
One year before the end of World War II, France became among others party to the Bretton Woods agreement, according to which the dollar turned into the main international currency of settlements and storage reserves. State exchange rate in subsequent years gradually strengthened. But over time, which, however, was inevitable, the dollar became the predominant currency in international calculations, and not only French: European green reserve notes grew at a rapid pace.
This situation negatively affected the state of the franc and others. European currencies. Advisor to Charles de Gaulle – Jacques Rueff – was a supporter of strengthening the position of gold in foreign exchange operations. In 1960 year he put forward a proposal to exchange a significant dollar stock on gold. In just a couple of years, the volume of gold and foreign exchange reserves increased from 73% to 86%. By 1965, the valuable reserve reached 4400 tons In total, about 874 million were exchanged for gold bullion. dollars.
A remarkable fact: unlike most European powers, France insisted on the return of the gold reserve to their homeland. Ingots were hastily exported outside the United States. Concerning the past few years, the French government is very careful belonged to its own foreign exchange reserve, refusing sell precious metals in large quantities. Marie le Pen – prominent politician – insists today not only on freezing sales of french yellow metal, but also on the return of all gold reserves to the homeland.
- Gold volumes: 2,451.8 tons
- International reserves: 67.9%
Italy is in 3rd place among countries with large gold and foreign exchange reserve. According to the Central Bank, about half gold reserves are located on the territory of the state, another 25% (600 tons) – in the reserve bank of the USA. Swiss National Bank stores about 120 tons of Italian gold and very little (12 tons) securely hidden in a British bank.
Over the past few years, the country has not only managed to maintain, but also to increase your gold and foreign exchange reserve: not the last role in this was played by the active support of the president of the European Central Bank – Mario Draghi. When the former head of the National Bank of Italy was asked about how big is the weight of a valuable metal in a portfolio of a state bank, he replied that gold plays the role of reliable protector against dollar fluctuations.
- Gold volumes: 3366.8 tons
- International reserves: 70.6%
Although in the ranking of countries with the largest gold reserve Germany takes only the second place among European states she is a clear leader. In 2017, Germany successfully completed lengthy and painstaking German repatriation procedure precious metals from the French and American national banks: 674 tons of gold returned to their homeland.
The first attempts to create your own foreign exchange reserve the country undertook back in 1951, when there was a sharp Leap in the global economy. The peak of this process was observed in 1968. year: at that time the volume of the gold and foreign exchange reserve of Germany reached 4000 tons. For several years, the country has been behaving very actively buying up gold in London, Paris and New York exchange.
Back in 2013, Germany’s gold reserves were more outside (in the Central Bank of the country was only about 31%). And in the same year the German government initiated the export process gold from vaults abroad. As a result, the percentage stored on Germany’s territory of valuable reserves increased to 48%. Every year about 5 tons of gold is used for minting coins. Any other operations are not carried out.
- Gold volumes: 8,133.5 tons
- International reserves: 75.2%
The United States has been holding the championship for several years the amount of available gold reserves. Amount of American Yellow metal is the sum of the reserves of the three previous countries. Besides Moreover, the United States has the most foreign reserves.
During the period of the Bretton Woods Agreement (1944-1976) there was a solid exchange rate and a tough gold price. The US government in those years used precious metal to strengthen dollar, which led to a decrease in valuable reserve.
The country’s gold reserves are stored at 4 points: Fort Knox (56%), West Point (21%), Mint (18%), Federal Reserve Bank (five%). In addition to its gold, the United States also holds some reserves yet 50 countries.
During the Great Depression, a decree was issued on the nationalization of gold: all citizens (regardless of whether they are physical or legal entities) pledged to surrender their gold. The price was $ 20.66 an ounce of metal. After the process is completed the confiscation price of the metal rose to 35 dollars.
Attention! This rating is subjective, not advertising and does not serve as a guide to the purchase. Before the purchase consultation with a specialist is necessary.